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Licopeno

¿Que es?

El licopeno es una sustancia quimica que existe en forma natural y que es la responsable del color rojo de las frutas y verduras. Es uno de los tantos pigmentos llamados carotenoides. El licopeno se encuentra en las sandias, los pomelos rosas, los albaricoques (damascos) y las guayabas. Se encuentra en cantidades especialmente elevadas en los tomates y los productos de tomates. En America del Norte, el 85% del licopeno en la dieta proviene de los productos de tomate tales como el jugo o concentrado de tomate. Una taza (240 ml) de jugo de tomate proporciona alrededor de 23 mg de licopeno. El procesar los tomates crudos usando el calor (en la elaboracion de jugo de tomate, concentrado de tomate o ketchup por ejemplo), cambia el licopeno a una forma que es mas facil de usar por el cuerpo. El licopeno en los suplementos es tan facil de usar por el cuerpo como el licopeno que se encuentra en los alimentos.

La gente toma licopeno para prevenir las enfermedades cardiacas, para el “endurecimiento de las arterias” (arterioesclerosis) y para el cancer de prostata, de mamas, del pulmon, de la vejiga, de los ovarios, del colon y del pancreas. El licopeno tambien se usa para el tratamiento de la infeccion con el virus del papilloma humano (VPH), que produce la mayoria de los casos de cancer uterino. Algunas personas tambien usan el licopeno para las cataratas y el asma.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia cientifica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente ineficaz para.

Cancer de vejiga . La investigacion sugiere que no existe vinculo entre el consumo de licopeno en la dieta y los niveles de licopeno en la sangre y el riego de desarrollar cancer de vejiga.

Diabetes . La investigacion sugiere que una mayor ingesta de licopeno en la dieta no reduce el riesgo de desarrollar diabetes.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para.

Enfermedad ocular relacionada con la edad (maculopatia relacionada con la edad) . Es inconsistente la investigacion sobre la efectividad del licopeno en la enfermedad ocular relacionada con la edad. Cierta evidencia sugiere que las personas con bajos niveles de licopeno son casis dos veces mas propensas a desarrollar enfermedad ocular relacionada con la edad en comparacion con personas con altos niveles de licopeno. Sin embargo, otra investigacion sugiere que no existe vinculo entre los niveles de licopeno o la ingesta de licopeno y el riesgo de sufrir enfermedad ocular relacionada con la edad.

Asma . Es contradictoria la investigacion sobre los efectos del licopeno en personas con asma. La ingesta de licopeno no parece reducir los sintomas del asma en adultos con los sintomas del asma estabilizados. Sin embargo, en personas con antecedentes de asma, provocado por el ejercicio fisico, la ingesta de un producto a base de licopeno (LycoMato, LycoRed Corp. Orange, NJ) parece mejorar la funcion pulmonar despues del ejercicio fisico.

Endurecimiento de las arterias (ateroesclerosis) . Existe cierta evidencia que muestra que los altos niveles de licopeno en sangre estan asociados a un menor riesgo de endurecimiento de las arterias. Existe cierta evidencia que muestra que los altos niveles de licopeno en sangre pueden disminuir la cardiopatia asociada con el endureciendo de las arterias. Sin embargo, no parece haber un vinculo entre los niveles de licopeno y el riesgo de sufrir un ACV.

Agrandamiento de prostata (Hiperplasia prostatica benigna, HPB) . La investigacion preliminar muestra que la ingesta de licopeno puede disminuir el progreso del agrandamiento de la prostata y puede mejorar los sintomas en personas con esta condicion. Sin embargo, otra investigacion descubrio que no existe un vinculo entre la ingesta de licopeno y el agrandamiento de la prostata.

Cancer de mama . Es contradictoria la investigacion sobre la manera en que el licopeno podria causar cancer de mama. Existe cierta evidencia que sugiere que los altos niveles de licopeno en sangre estan asociados a un menor riesgo de sufrir cancer de mama. Sin embargo, otra investigacion muestra que ni la ingesta de licopeno ni los niveles de licopeno en sangre estan vinculados al riesgo de sufrir cancer de mama.

Cardiopatia . Cierta evidencia muestra que las mujeres con altos niveles de luteina en la sangre presentan un menor riesgo de desarrollar cardiopatia. Sin embargo, otra investigacion muestra que no existe vinculo entre la ingesta de licopeno y la cardiopatia o el ACV en las mujeres. Ademas, una mayor ingesta de licopeno no parece prevenir los infartos de miocardio en hombres con menor riesgo de sufrir cardiopatia.

Cataratas . Un estudio sugiere que los altos niveles de licopeno en sangre estan asociados con un menor riesgo de desarrollar cataratas. Sin embargo, otros estudios no han descubierto ningun vinculo entre la ingesta de licopeno o los altos niveles de licopeno y el riesgo de desarrollar cataratas.

Cancer de cuello de utero . Es contradictoria la investigacion sobre la manera en que el licopeno podria causar cancer de cuello de utero. Existe cierta evidencia que sugiere que los altos niveles de licopeno en sangre o una gran ingesta de licopeno estan asociados con un menor riesgo de sufrir cancer de cuello de utero. No obstante, en otros estudios no se ha descubierto tal vinculo.

Cancer colorrectal . Es contradictoria la investigacion sobre la manera en que el licopeno podria causar cancer de cuello de utero. Cierta evidencia sugiere que las personas que ingieren una alta cantidad de licopeno son menos propensos a desarrollar cancer colorrectal que aquellas que ingieren menos licopeno. Sin embargo, otra investigacion muestra que no existe un vinculo entre la ingesta de licopeno y el riesgo de sufrir de cancer colorrectal.

Gingivitis . La investigacion preliminar muestra qye la ingesta de un suplemento especifico con licopeno (LycoRed, Jagsonpal Pharmaceuticals) durante dos semanas o una unica inyeccion de licopeno en gel en las envias reduce la gingivitis.

Tumor cerebral (glioma) . La investigacion preliminar muestra que la ingesta de licopeno durante tres meses no mejora la respuesta a la radioterapia y la quimioterapia en personas con tumores cerebrales.

Ulceras causadas por infeccion por Helicobacter pylori . La investigacion preliminar muestra que la ingesta de licopeno junto con antibioticos no ayuda en el tratamiento de la infeccion por Helicobacter pylori en comparacion con la ingesta solo de antibioticos.

Infeccion por virus del papiloma humano (VPH) . Las mujeres con altos niveles de licopeno en la sangre parecen recuperarse de la infeccion por VPH asociada con cancer mas rapidamente que aquellas con bajos niveles de licopeno en la sangre.

Colesterol alto . La investigacion preliminar muestra que la ingesta de un suplemento especifico con licopeno (LycoRed, Jagsonpal Pharmaceuticals) durante seis meses disminuye el colesterol de lipoproteina (LDL o “malo”) de baja densidad y aumenta el colesterol de lipoproteina de alta densidad (HDL o “bueno”). Sin embargo, otra evidencia sugiere que el licopeno no afecta los niveles de colesterol en adultos sanos o en aquellos con cardiopatia.

Hipertension arterial . La investigacion preliminar muestra que la ingesta diaria de un producto especifico (LycoMato, LycoRed Corp. Organge, NJ) durante ocho semanas disminuye la presion arterail alta en personas con hipertension arterial. Sin embargo, otra investigacion sugiere que no existe vinculo entre los niveles de licopeno en sangre y el riesgo de desarrollar hipertension arterial.

Cancer de pulmon . Es contradictoria la investigacion sobre la manera en que el licopeno podria causar cancer de pulmon. Cierta investigacion muestra que incorporar poco licopeno en la dieta esta vinculado con un mayor riesgo de sufrir cancer de pulmon. Sin embargo, otra investigacion sugiere que no existe un vinculo entre el consumo de licopeno o los niveles de licopeno en la sangre y el riego de desarrollar cancer de pulmon.

Problemas de infertilidad masculina . La investigacion preliminar muestra que la ingesta diaria de licopeno durante tres meses mejora la calidad del espermatozoide en algunos hombres con problemas de fertilidad debido a causas desconocidas.

Sintomas menopausicos . La investigacion preliminar muestra que la ingesta diaria de un producto especifico con licopeno, calcio, vitamina D3, astaxantina y bioflavonoides de los citricos (Cor. Con. International, Parma, Italy) durante ocho semanas reduce los sintomas menopausicos incluidos sofocos, dolor articular, ansiedad y depresion.

Lesiones precancerosas de color blanco en la boca (leucoplasia oral) . La investigacion preliminar muestra que la ingesta de un suplemento de licopeno especifico (LycoRed, Jagsonpal Pharmaceutical) dos veces por dia mejora las lesiones precancerosas de color blanco en la boca.

Ulceras e inflamacion en la boca (mucositis oral) . La investigacion preliminar muestra que la ingesta de licopeno durante dos meses mejora las ulceraciones en la boca en personas con mucositis oral.

Cancer de ovario . Es contradictoria la evidencia sobre la efectividad del licopeno para tratar el cancer de ovario. Cierta investigacion muestra que una dieta rica en carotenoides, incluido el licopeno, parece ayudar a prevenir el cancer de ovario en mujeres jovenes (menopausicas). Sin embargo, otra investigacion muestra que el riesgo de desarrollar cancer de ovario no esta vinculado a los niveles de licopeno en la sangre.

Cancer de pancreas . Cierta investigacion preliminar muestra que una dieta alta en licopeno, principalmente del tomate, parece disminuir el riesgo de desarrollar cancer de pancreas.

Hipertension arterial durante el embarazo . No es clara la investigacion sobre el efecto del licopeno para prevenir la presion arterial alta durante el embarazo. Cierta investigacion muestra que la ingesta de un suplemento de licopeno especifico (LycoRed, Jagonpal Pharmaceuticals) dos veces por dia, comenzando entre las semanas 16 y 20 del embarazo y continuando hasta el parto, disminuye tanto la presion arterial alta como las complicaciones asociadas. Sin embargo, otra investigacion sugiere que el licopeno no afecta la presion arterial durante el embarazo.

Cancer de prostata . Es contradictoria la investigacion sobre los efectos del licopeno para prevenir o tratar el cancer de prostata. Existe cierta investigacion que sugiere que una mayor ingesta de licopeno o los altos niveles de licopeno en sangre estan asociados con un menor riesgo de desarrollar cancer de prostata. Sin embargo, otra investigacion muestra que no existe vinculo entre la ingesta de licopeno o los altos niveles de licopeno en la sangre y el riesgo de sufrir de cancer de prostata. Ademas, la investigacion preliminar llevada cabo en los hombres que sufren cambios precancerosos en la prostata muestra que la ingesta de 4 mg de suplementos de licopeno dos veces al dia podria retardar o prevenir el avance del cancer de prostata. Sin embargo, en otra investigacion, la ingesta diaria de licopeno durante un maximo de un ano no parecio ayudar a tratar el cancer de prostata.

Inflamacion de la prostata y dolor pelvico . La investigacion preliminar muestra que la ingesta de una combinacion especifica de licopeno, selenio y palma enana (Profluss, KonPharma) durante ocho semanas reduce el dolor en los hombres con inflamacion de la prostata y dolor pelvico en comparacion con la ingesta solo de palma enana.

Cancer de rinon (carcinoma de celulas renales) . La investigacion muestra que no existe vinculo entre el consume de licopeno y el riesgo de desarrollar cancer de rinon.

Quemaduras solares . La investigacion preliminar muestra que la ingesta de licopeno, solo o junto con otros ingredientes, podria proteger contra quemaduras solares.

Otras afecciones .

Se necesita mas evidencia para poder aprobar el licopeno para estos usos.

¿Como funciona?

El licopeno es un poderoso antioxidante que puede ayudar a proteger a las celulas para que estas no sufran dano. Por esta razon hay un gran interes en investigar el rol del licopeno, si es que juega uno, en la prevencion del cancer.

¿Hay preocupacion por la seguridad de su uso?

El licopeno es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO cuando se lo ingiere en cantidades apropiadas. Suplementos diarios que contienen hasta 120 mg de licopeno se han usado sin peligro hasta durante un ano.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia . El licopeno ES PROBABLEMENTE durante el embarazo y la lactancia cuando se lo ingieren en cantidades comunmente presentes en los alimentos. Sin embargo, el licopeno es POSIBLEMENTE SEGURO cuando se lo ingiere como suplemento durante el embarazo. En un estudio donde se uso un suplemento de licopeno (LycoRed, Jagsonpal Pharmaceuticals), se descubrio que la ingesta de 2 mg por dia, comenzando entre las semanas 12 y 20 del embarazo y continuando hasta el parto, aumento la tasa de nacimientos prematuros y de bebes con bajo peso al nacer. Existe poca informacion sobre si los suplementos de licopeno son seguro s durante la lactancia. Si esta embarazada o amantando, evite el uso del licopeno en cantidades mayores de las que se encuentra en los alimentos.

Cancer de prostata . Investigaciones en desarrollo sugieren que el licopeno podria empeorar el cancer de prostata ya presente. Hasta que no se tenga mas informacion, evite tomar licopeno si ha sido diagnosticado con cancer de prostata.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

No se sabe si este producto interactúa con algún medicamento.

Si está tomando medicamentos, converse con su proveedor de atención médica antes de empezar a tomar este producto.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Betacaroteno El tomar betacaroteno junto con licopeno podria aumentar la cantidad de licopeno que es absorbida por el cuerpo.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

OLESTRA (sustituto de la grasa) La ingesta de olestra podria reducir la cantidad de licopeno absorbida por el cuerpo.

¿Que dosis se utiliza?

La dosis apropiada del licopeno depende de muchos factores tales como la edad de la persona, el estado de salud y varias otras condiciones. En este momento no hay suficiente informacion cientifica para determinar un rango de dosis apropiado para el uso del licopeno. Tenga en mente que los productos naturales no son siempre necesariamente seguros y las dosis pueden ser importantes. Asegurese de seguir las instrucciones en las etiquetas de los productos y consulte con su farmaceutico, doctor u otro proveedor de salud medica antes de usarlos.

Otros nombres

Referencias

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Chan, J. M. Weinberg, V. Magbanua, M. J. Sosa, E. Simko, J. Shinohara, K. Federman, S. Mattie, M. Hughes-Fulford, M. Haqq, C. and Carroll, P. R. Nutritional supplements, COX-2 and IGF-1 expression in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2011;22:141-150. View abstract .

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Boeing, H. Jedrychowski, W. Wahrendorf, J. Popiela, T. Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B. and Kulig, A. Dietary risk factors in intestinal and diffuse types of stomach cancer: a multicenter case-control study in Poland. Cancer Causes Control 1991;2:227-233. View abstract .

Devaraj, S. Mathur, S. Basu, A. Aung, H. H. Vasu, V. T. Meyers, S. and Jialal, I. A dose-response study on the effects of purified lycopene supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 2008;27:267-273. View abstract .

Hernandez-Valero, M. A. Thomson, C. A. Hernandez, M. Tran, T. Detry, M. A. Theriault, R. L. Hajek, R. A. Pierce, J. P. Flatt, S. W. Caan, B. J. and Jones, L. A. Comparison of baseline dietary intake of Hispanic and matched non-Hispanic white breast cancer survivors enrolled in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living study. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2008;108:1323-1329. View abstract .

Denniss, S. G. Haffner, T. D. Kroetsch, J. T. Davidson, S. R. Rush, J. W. and Hughson, R. L. Effect of short-term lycopene supplementation and postprandial dyslipidemia on plasma antioxidants and biomarkers of endothelial health in young, healthy individuals. Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 2008;4:213-222. View abstract .

Baghurst, P. A. McMichael, A. J. Slavotinek, A. H. Baghurst, K. I. Boyle, P. and Walker, A. M. A case-control study of diet and cancer of the pancreas. Am J Epidemiol. 7-15-1991;134:167-179. View abstract .

Burri, B. J. Chapman, M. H. Neidlinger, T. R. Seo, J. S. and Ishida, B. K. Tangerine tomatoes increase total and tetra-cis-lycopene isomer concentrations more than red tomatoes in healthy adult humans. Int. J.Food Sci. Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 1:1-16. View abstract .

Voskuil, D. W. Vrieling, A. Korse, C. M. Beijnen, J. H. Bonfrer, J. M. van, Doorn J. Kaas, R. Oldenburg, H. S. Russell, N. S. Rutgers, E. J. Verhoef, S. van Leeuwen, F. E. van't Veer, L. J. and Rookus, M. A. Effects of lycopene on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in premenopausal breast cancer survivors and women at high familial breast cancer risk. Nutr. Cancer 2008;60:342-353. View abstract .

Grainger, E. M. Schwartz, S. J. Wang, S. Unlu, N. Z. Boileau, T. W. Ferketich, A. K. Monk, J. P. Gong, M. C. Bahnson, R. R. DeGroff, V. L. and Clinton, S. K. A combination of tomato and soy products for men with recurring prostate cancer and rising prostate specific antigen. Nutr Cancer 2008;60:145-154. View abstract .

Wood, L. G. Garg, M. L. Powell, H. and Gibson, P. G. Lycopene-rich treatments modify noneosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma: proof of concept. Free Radic. Res. 2008;42:94-102. View abstract .

Schnabele, K. Briviba, K. Bub, A. Roser, S. Pool-Zobel, B. L. and Rechkemmer, G. Effects of carrot and tomato juice consumption on faecal markers relevant to colon carcinogenesis in humans. Br. J.Nutr. 2008;99:606-613. View abstract .

Chandra, R. V. Prabhuji, M. L. Roopa, D. A. Ravirajan, S. and Kishore, H. C. Efficacy of lycopene in the treatment of gingivitis: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Oral Health Prev. Dent 2007;5:327-336. View abstract .

Schwarz, S. Obermuller-Jevic, U. C. Hellmis, E. Koch, W. Jacobi, G. and Biesalski, H. K. Lycopene inhibits disease progression in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. J Nutr 2008;138:49-53. View abstract .

Vaishampayan, U. Hussain, M. Banerjee, M. Seren, S. Sarkar, F. H. Fontana, J. Forman, J. D. Cher, M. L. Powell, I. Pontes, J. E. and Kucuk, O. Lycopene and soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer 2007;59:1-7. View abstract .

Blum, A. Monir, M. Khazim, K. Peleg, A. and Blum, N. Tomato-rich (Mediterranean) diet does not modify inflammatory markers. Clin. Invest Med. 2007;30:E70-E74. View abstract .

Kawashima, A. Madarame, T. Koike, H. Komatsu, Y. and Wise, J. A. Four week supplementation with mixed fruit and vegetable juice concentrates increased protective serum antioxidants and folate and decreased plasma homocysteine in Japanese subjects. Asia Pac. J.Clin. Nutr. 2007;16:411-421. View abstract .

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Steinmetz, K. A. and Potter, J. D. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer. II. Mechanisms. Cancer Causes Control 1991;2:427-442. View abstract .

Jacob, K. Periago, M. J. Bohm, V. and Berruezo, G. R. Influence of lycopene and vitamin C from tomato juice on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Br. J.Nutr. 2008;99:137-146. View abstract .

Shen, Y. C. Chen, S. L. and Wang, C. K. Contribution of tomato phenolics to antioxidation and down-regulation of blood lipids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 8-8-2007;55:6475-6481. View abstract .

Silaste, M. L. Alfthan, G. Aro, A. Kesaniemi, Y. A. and Horkko, S. Tomato juice decreases LDL cholesterol levels and increases LDL resistance to oxidation. Br. J.Nutr. 2007;98:1251-1258. View abstract .

Bunker, C. H. McDonald, A. C. Evans, R. W. de la, Rosa N. Boumosleh, J. M. and Patrick, A. L. A randomized trial of lycopene supplementation in Tobago men with high prostate cancer risk. Nutr Cancer 2007;57:130-137. View abstract .

Potischman, N. Herrero, R. Brinton, L. A. Reeves, W. C. Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M. Jones, C. J. Brenes, M. M. Tenorio, F. de Britton, R. C. and Gaitan, E. A case-control study of nutrient status and invasive cervical cancer. II. Serologic indicators. Am J Epidemiol. 12-1-1991;134:1347-1355. View abstract .

Goyal, A. Chopra, M. Lwaleed, B. A. Birch, B. and Cooper, A. J. The effects of dietary lycopene supplementation on human seminal plasma. BJU. Int 2007;99:1456-1460. View abstract .

Bose, K. S. and Agrawal, B. K. Effect of lycopene from cooked tomatoes on serum antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation rate and lipid profile in coronary heart disease. Singapore Med. J. 2007;48:415-420. View abstract .

Unlu, N. Z. Bohn, T. Francis, D. M. Nagaraja, H. N. Clinton, S. K. and Schwartz, S. J. Lycopene from heat-induced cis-isomer-rich tomato sauce is more bioavailable than from all-trans-rich tomato sauce in human subjects. Br J Nutr 2007;98:140-146. View abstract .

Jatoi, A. Burch, P. Hillman, D. Vanyo, J. M. Dakhil, S. Nikcevich, D. Rowland, K. Morton, R. Flynn, P. J. Young, C. and Tan, W. A tomato-based, lycopene-containing intervention for androgen-independent prostate cancer: results of a Phase II study from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group. Urology 2007;69:289-294. View abstract .

Bose, K. S. and Agrawal, B. K. Effect of long term supplementation of tomatoes (cooked) on levels of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation rate, lipid profile and glycated haemoglobin in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. West Indian Med. J. 2006;55:274-278. View abstract .

Unlu, N. Z. Bohn, T. Francis, D. Clinton, S. K. and Schwartz, S. J. Carotenoid absorption in humans consuming tomato sauces obtained from tangerine or high-beta-carotene varieties of tomatoes. J Agric Food Chem 2-21-2007;55:1597-1603. View abstract .

Kumar, A. Bagewadi, A. Keluskar, V. and Singh, M. Efficacy of lycopene in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. Endod. 2007;103:207-213. View abstract .

Blum, A. Merei, M. Karem, A. Blum, N. Ben-Arzi, S. Wirsansky, I. and Khazim, K. Effects of tomatoes on the lipid profile. Clin. Invest Med. 2006;29:298-300. View abstract .

Bosetti, C. Scotti, L. Maso, L. D. Talamini, R. Montella, M. Negri, E. Ramazzotti, V. Franceschi, S. and La Vecchia, C. Micronutrients and the risk of renal cell cancer: a case-control study from Italy. Int J Cancer 2-15-2007;120:892-896. View abstract .

Paterson, E. Gordon, M. H. Niwat, C. George, T. W. Parr, L. Waroonphan, S. and Lovegrove, J. A. Supplementation with fruit and vegetable soups and beverages increases plasma carotenoid concentrations but does not alter markers of oxidative stress or cardiovascular risk factors. J. Nutr. 2006;136:2849-2855. View abstract .

Barber, N. J. Zhang, X. Zhu, G. Pramanik, R. Barber, J. A. Martin, F. L. Morris, J. D. and Muir, G. H. Lycopene inhibits DNA synthesis in primary prostate epithelial cells in vitro and its administration is associated with a reduced prostate-specific antigen velocity in a phase II clinical study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic. Dis 2006;9:407-413. View abstract .

O'Kennedy, N. Crosbie, L. van, Lieshout M. Broom, J. I. Webb, D. J. and Duttaroy, A. K. Effects of antiplatelet components of tomato extract on platelet function in vitro and ex vivo: a time-course cannulation study in healthy humans. Am. J.Clin. Nutr. 2006;84:570-579. View abstract .

O'Kennedy, N. Crosbie, L. Whelan, S. Luther, V. Horgan, G. Broom, J. I. Webb, D. J. and Duttaroy, A. K. Effects of tomato extract on platelet function: a double-blinded crossover study in healthy humans. Am. J.Cl