Otostan Ear Drops 15ml, Otostan

OTOSTAN EAR DROPS 15ML

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Otostan MITICIDE GALES EAR TREATMENT OF DOG AND CAT. Qualitative and quantitative composition Crotamiton 0.1 g Excipient: 1 ml

AMM No. FR / V / 9010728 9/1992.

PRESENTATION 15 ml bottle No. GTIN: 03661729238241

INDICATIONS Treatment of ear mite Otodectes cynotis due to dogs and cats.

PROPERTIES - The crotamiton has the following properties: - Specific acaricide against Otodectes cynotis particular, the agent of ear mite of cats and dogs, - Effective and fast antipruritic whose action begins a few minutes after application and lasts 4-6 hours. It leads to a rapid and lasting eradication of ear mange in dogs and cats.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Auricular use. After cleaning the external auditory duct, instill a dozen drops of OTOSTAN, then massage the base of the ear to promote good penetration of the product. Repeat treatment every 2 days for a minimum of three weeks.

CONTRAINDICATIONS Do not use in case of known allergy to crotamiton.

PRECAUTIONS Special precautions for use in animals At very important otologic reached, it is recommended to ensure the integrity tympanic before applying the solution.

Special precautions to be taken by the person administering the medicinal product to animals Wash hands with water and soap after administration. In case of contact with eyes, rinse thoroughly with water. If splashed on skin, wash with soap and water. In case of accidental ingestion, seek medical advice and show the package leaflet. People with known hypersensitivity to any component should avoid contact with the product.

Use during pregnancy and lactation Product safety has not been studied during gestation and lactation. The use of specialty during pregnancy and lactation should be an evaluation of the benefit / risk balance by the veterinarian.

REMARKS Cleaning the ear canal with the EAR MILK Biocanina before applying OTOSTAN or any ear treatment allows: - Mechanically eliminate most pathogens responsible for disease - To obtain a better contact of the active ingredients with the pathogens and the coating of the duct.

COUNCIL PLUS Biocanina Always respect the duration of treatment (beware of relapses for scabies). As a precaution, treat 2 ears. Prevention, treat other sensitive household pets (dogs and cats).

Buy Metostad Comp Online Without Prescriptions, Metostad Comp

Hydrochlorothiazide is used for treating high blood pressure. It is also used to treat fluid buildup in the body caused by certain conditions (eg, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, kidney problems) or medicines (eg, corticosteroids, estrogen). It may be used alone or with other medicines. Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic. It helps the kidneys to remove fluid from the body.

Use Hydrochlorothiazide as directed by your doctor.

Take Hydrochlorothiazide by mouth with or without food.

Hydrochlorothiazide may increase the amount of urine or cause you to urinate more often when you first start taking it. To keep this from disturbing your sleep, try to take your dose before 6 pm.

If you miss a dose of Hydrochlorothiazide, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Hydrochlorothiazide.

Store Hydrochlorothiazide at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Hydrochlorothiazide out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do NOT use Hydrochlorothiazide if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Hydrochlorothiazide

you are unable to urinate

you are taking dofetilide or ketanserin.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Hydrochlorothiazide. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue) to a sulfonamide medicine (eg, sulfamethoxazole)

if you have gout, liver problems, (eg, cirrhosis), lupus, kidney problems, diabetes, asthma, parathyroid gland problems, or high blood cholesterol or lipid levels

if you have high or low blood electrolyte levels (eg, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium)

if you are taking another medicine for high blood pressure.

Some medicines may interact with Hydrochlorothiazide. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Digoxin, dofetilide, or ketanserin because the risk of irregular heartbeat may be increased

Barbiturates (eg, phenobarbital), corticotropin, corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), or narcotic pain medicines (eg, codeine) because they may increase the risk of Hydrochlorothiazide's side effects

Cholestyramine, colestipol, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen) because they may decrease Hydrochlorothiazide's effectiveness

Diazoxide or lithium because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Hydrochlorothiazide

Diabetes medicines (eg, glipizide, metformin) or insulin because their effectiveness may be decreased by Hydrochlorothiazide.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Hydrochlorothiazide may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Hydrochlorothiazide may cause dizziness or blurred vision. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Hydrochlorothiazide with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Hydrochlorothiazide may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting; alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Your doctor may also prescribe a potassium supplement for you. If so, take the potassium supplement exactly as prescribed. Do not start taking additional potassium on your own or change your diet to include more potassium without first checking with your doctor.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Hydrochlorothiazide before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Tell your doctor if you will be exposed to high temperatures. The risk of certain side effects (eg, low blood sodium levels) may be increased in hot weather.

Hydrochlorothiazide may cause you to become sunburned more easily. Avoid the sun, sunlamps, or tanning booths until you know how you react to Hydrochlorothiazide. Use a sunscreen or wear protective clothing if you must be outside for more than a short time.

Patients who take medicine for high blood pressure often feel tired or run down for a few weeks after starting treatment. Be sure to take your medicine even if you may not feel "normal." Tell your doctor if you develop any new symptoms.

Hydrochlorothiazide may raise your blood sugar. High blood sugar may make you feel confused, drowsy, or thirsty. It can also make you flush, breathe faster, or have a fruit-like breath odor. If these symptoms occur, tell your doctor right away.

Diabetes patients - Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Hydrochlorothiazide may interfere with certain lab tests, including parathyroid function tests. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know you are taking Hydrochlorothiazide.

Lab tests, including kidney function, blood pressure, and electrolyte levels, may be performed while you use Hydrochlorothiazide. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Hydrochlorothiazide with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects, especially dizziness.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Hydrochlorothiazide may cause harm to the fetus. If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Hydrochlorothiazide while you are pregnant. Hydrochlorothiazide is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Hydrochlorothiazide, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Constipation; diarrhea; dizziness; lightheadedness (especially when sitting up or standing); loss of appetite; nausea; temporary blurred vision.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); confusion; dark urine; decreased urination; fainting; fast or irregular heartbeat; fever, chills, or persistent sore throat; increased thirst; joint pain, swelling, warmth, or redness (especially of the big toe joint); mental or mood changes; muscle pain or cramps; numbness or tingling; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin; seizures; severe or persistent dizziness; severe or persistent nausea or stomach pain; shortness of breath; unusual bruising or bleeding; unusual drowsiness, restlessness, tiredness, or weakness; unusually dry mouth; vomiting; yellowing of the eyes or skin.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Osral Allred - Spring City Arts, Osral

In 1966 Allred began teaching at Snow College where he taught courses in watercolor, drawing, jewelry, and design.

Allred has exhibited his work at the National Academy of Design in New York and at Watercolor USA in Springfield, Missouri where he won the Deborah Weisel Purchase Award for his watercolor Tender (1968), a painting depicting a railroad car. Front Hookup (1984) is another notable watercolor also depicting a train. His works have also been displayed at the Salt Lake Art Center and at the Cache County Art League.

Biographical information on this page was adapted from Artists of Utah.

Support Art! Donate to Spring City Arts, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization dedicated to promoting art, artists, art awareness and art education in Spring City, Sanpete County and Utah.

‌‌© 2016 Copyright Spring City Arts and the Individual Artists Contact the webmaster at springcityarts@gmail. com

Azelastine Eye Drops, Oculastin

AZELASTINE EYE DROPS

Transcript

Package Leaflet: Information for the patient

Azelastine 0.5 mg/ml Eye Drops, Solution Azelastine hydrochloride

Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start using this medicine because it contains important information for you. • Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again. • If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist. • This medicine has been prescribed for you only. Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them, even if their signs of illness are the same as yours. • If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. See section 4. • In this leaflet Azelastine 0.5 mg/ml Eye Drops, Solution is called Azelastine. What is in this leaflet 1. What Azelastine is and what it is used for 2. What you need to know before you use Azelastine 3. How to use Azelastine 4. Possible side effects 5. How to store Azelastine 6. Contents of the pack and other information. 1. What Azelastine is and what it is used for Azelastine contains the active substance azelastine hydrochloride, which belongs to a group of medicines called antiallergics (antihistamines). Antihistamines work by preventing the effects of substances such as histamine that the body produces as part of an allergic reaction. Azelastine has been shown to reduce inflammation of the eye. Azelastine can be used to treat and prevent eye disorders which you get with hayfever (seasonal allergic conjunctivitis) in adults and children aged 4 years and above.

- if you wear contact lenses. Children and adolescents For the treatment of eye disorders caused by hayfever (seasonal allergic conjunctivitis): Do not give this medicine to children below 4 years of age, because safety and efficacy have not been established. For the treatment of eye disorders caused by an allergy (non-seasonal (perennial) allergic conjunctivitis): Do not give this medicine to children below 12 years of age, because safety and efficacy have not been established. Other medicines and Azelastine Although Azelastine is not known to be affected by other medicines, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines. Pregnancy and breast-feeding If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, think you may be pregnant or are planning to have a baby, ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice before taking this medicine.

You must talk to a doctor if you do not feel better or if you feel worse after 2 days. Azelastine is not suitable for treating eye infections.

2. What you need to know before you use Azelastine Do not use Azelastine: • if you are allergic to azelastine hydrochloride or any of the other ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6). Warnings and precautions Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before using Azelastine: - if you are not sure whether your eye disorders are caused by an allergy. In particular if only one eye is affected; if your vision is impaired; or the eye hurts and you do not have any symptoms in your nose, you may have an infection rather than an allergy - if the complaints worsen or last longer than 48 hours without remarkable improvement despite the use of Azelastine

provide more information on the safety of this medicine.

1. Wash your hands. 2. Gently wipe around your eyes with a tissues to remove any moisture (Diagram 1). 3. Unscrew the top of the bottle and check that the dropper is clean. 4. Gently pull your lower eye lid down (Diagram 2). 5. Carefully place the drop inside the middle of your lower eyelid (Diagram 3). Take care not to let the dropper touch your eye. 6. Release your lower eye lid and gently press on the inner corner of your eye against the bridge of your nose (Diagram 4). Keeping your finger pressed against your nose, slowly blink your eyes a few times to spread the drop across the surface of your eye. 7. Blot away any excess medicine with a tissue. 8. Repeat this for your other eye.

Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children.

Duration of treatment If possible, you should use Azelastine regularly until your symptoms have disappeared. Do not take Azelastine for more than 6 weeks.

Driving and using machines Your sight may become blurred for a short time after you use Azelastine. If this happens, wait until your sight clears before you drive or use machinery.

If you use more Azelastine than you should If you put too much Azelastine into your eyes you are unlikely to have any problems. If you are worried, contact your doctor. If you accidentally swallow Azelastine, contact your doctor or nearest hospital casualty department as soon as possible.

Azelastine contains benzalkonium chloride Azelastine contains the preservative benzalkonium chloride, which is known to discolour soft contact lenses. Avoid contact with soft contact lenses. Remove contact lenses prior to application and wait at least 15 minutes before reinsertion.

If you forget to use Azelastine Use your eye drops as soon as you remember, then take the next dose at the usual time. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed dose.

Benzalkonium chloride may cause an allergic reaction (eye irritation).

Azelastine can be used for eye disorders caused by an allergy to substances such as house dust mites or animal hair (perennial allergic conjunctivitis) in adults and children aged 12 years and above.

Putting in your Azelastine eye drops To help you put in your eye drops correctly, you may find it useful to sit in front of a mirror so you can see what you are doing for the first few times.

Always use this medicine exactly as your doctor has told you. Check with your doctor if you are not sure. Remember: • Azelastine should only be applied to the eyes. The recommended dose is: Eye disorders caused by hayfever (seasonal allergic conjunctivitis) • Use in adults and children aged 4 years and above • The usual dose is one drop in each eye in the morning and evening.

6. Contents of the pack and other information What Azelastine contains The active substance is azelastine hydrochloride 0.05% (0.5 mg/ml). Each drop contains 0.015 mg azelastine hydrochloride. The other ingredients are benzalkonium chloride, disodium edetate, hypromellose, liquid sorbitol (crystallising) (E420i), sodium hydroxide (E524) and water for injections. What Azelastine looks like and contents of the pack Azelastine is a clear, colourless solution. Azelastine comes in a plastic bottle with a dropper attachment. One bottle contains either 6, 8 or 10 ml eye drops, solution. Not all pack sizes may be marketed. Marketing Authorisation Holder Meda Pharmaceuticals Limited Skyway House Parsonage Road Takeley Bishop’s Stortford CM22 6PU

4. Possible side effects

This medicinal product is authorised in the Member States of the EEA under the following names:

These effects include: • Common (may affect up to 1 in 10 people): Slight irritation (burning, itching, watering) in the eyes after putting in Azelastine. This should not last long. • Uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people): A bitter taste in your mouth. This should quickly disappear especially if you have a soft drink. • Very rare (may affect up to 1 in 10,000 people): An allergic reaction (such as rash and itching).

Eye disorders caused by an allergy (non-seasonal (perennial) allergic conjunctivitis) • Use in adults and children aged 12 years and above • The usual dose is one drop in each eye in the morning and evening.

Do not throw away any medicines via wastewater or household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to throw away medicines you no longer use. These measures will help protect the environment.

If you have any further questions on the use of this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Like all medicines, this medicine can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them.

If you anticipate contact with pollen, the usual dose of Azelastine may be taken as a preventive measure before going outside.

Do not use this medicine after the expiry date which is stated on the bottle label and the outer carton. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month. Once opened: Do not use this medicine if the bottle has been open for longer than 4 weeks. This medicine does not require any special storage conditions.

Manufacturer MEDA Pharma GmbH & Co. KG Benzstrasse 1 61352 Bad Homburg Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6172 888 - 01 fax: +49 (0) 6172 888 - 2740 e-mail: medinfo@medapharma. de

If you stop using Azelastine If you interrupt the use of Azelastine your symptoms are likely to return.

3. How to use Azelastine

5. How to store Azelastine

United Kingdom: Ireland: Italy: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Portugal, Sweden, The Netherlands: Spain: Germany:

Relief of symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis should be noticed after 15-30 minutes.

PRODUCT: Insert Azelastine (UK) MEASURE: 120 x 295 mm (120 x 25 mm) COLOURS:

EXTRA: Deca code

NOTE: www. effe5grafica. it Tel. (+39) 06 9326.0017 postmaster@effe5grafica. it

TEXT SIZE: 8 pt / Helvetica Family

Oculastin Corifina Allergodil akut Augentropfen Allergodil Augentropfen

This leaflet was last revised in June 2015.

Reporting of side effects If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. You can also report side effects directly via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www. mhra. gov. uk/yellowcard By reporting side effects you can help

If your symptoms are severe, your doctor may increase your dose to one drop in each eye, up to four times a day.

Azelastine Azelastine Eye Drops Lasticom

Source: Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided here is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. This information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Jadelle (Levonorgestrel Implants (Unavailable In Us)) Drug Information Medication Guide And Patient

PATIENT INFORMATION

This product is intended to prevent pregnancy. It does not protect against HIV infection (AIDS) or other sexually transmitted diseases.

WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT JADELLE® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) IMPLANTS BEFORE YOU DECIDE TO USE THEM

You need to read and understand this brochure before you decide to use Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants. It tells you about the risks and benefits of Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants. Discuss it with your health care provider. Ask him/her to explain anything you do not understand.

There is a more technical brochure about Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants that was written for health care providers. If you would like to read that brochure too, ask your health care provider for a copy. You may need help to understand some of the information.

Before you decide to use Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants or any other birth control method, compare it to other birth control methods. If you want to learn more about other methods, ask your health care provider. Another method may be better for you than Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants.

Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants differ from most other methods of birth control. Each of the two small, flexible silicone Jadelle (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants contains a hormone. These implants must be inserted in your arm by a minor surgical procedure performed by a health care provider in the office. You should know that some health care providers have more experience than others in inserting Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants. Be sure to ask your health care provider whether he/she has received instruction in how to insert Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants and remove them.

You can decide to have Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants removed at any time. You should know that removing Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants may be more difficult than inserting them. It may take longer and involve more pain. It may leave scars. This risk does not exist with most other birth control methods.

Some women should not use Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants. To find out whether you are one of these women, talk to health care provider and read this brochure carefully, especially the sections entitled "WHO SHOULD NOT USE JADELLE® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) IMPLANTS" and "OTHER CONSIDERATIONS BEFORE CHOOSING JADELLE® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) IMPLANTS."

Some women who use Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants will have side effects. You should know the danger signs described in this brochure.

Each woman who considers using Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants should understand the benefits and risks of this form of birth control as compared with other contraceptive methods. This leaflet will give you much of the information you will need to make a decision on whether to use Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)). but it is not a replacement for a careful discussion with your health-care provider. You should discuss the information provided in this leaflet with him or her, both when choosing whether to use Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) and during revisits. You should also follow your health-care provider's advice with regard to regular checkups while using Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants.

Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants are two thin flexible implants that are inserted just under the skin on the inner surface of your upper arm in a minor, outpatient surgical procedure. The implants contain the synthetic hormone levonorgestrel (a progestin ). A similar product, NORPLANT® implants, consists of six capsules that are inserted under the skin and also contain levonorgestrel as the active ingredient. Levonorgestrel is also used in many birth control pills.

Immediately after insertion of Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants, a low continuous dose of the hormone is released into your body. Pregnancy is prevented by stopping ovulation (so eggs will not be produced regularly), and thickening the cervical mucus (making it more difficult for the sperm to reach the egg). There may also be other effects that contribute to pregnancy prevention. Following removal, the effects reverse quickly and a woman can become pregnant as easily as if she had never used Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants.

EFFECTIVENESS OF JADELLE® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) IMPLANTS

Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants are one of the most effective reversible birth control methods. No method is 100% effective. The average annual pregnancy rate over a 5-year period for Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants is less than 1%. That is less than one pregnancy for every 100 women during each year of use. Jadelle (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) may be less effective in obese women. Over the five year period, the cumulative or total pregnancy rate is about 1%. In comparison, pregnancy rates during the first year of using other birth control methods are as follows:

Typical Failure Rates (%) During the First Year of Use of a Contraceptive Method

Adapted from Hatcher RA et al. Contraceptive Technology, 17th Revised Edition. New York, NY: Irvington Publishers, 1998

Except for Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants, NORPLANT® implants, sterilization, and the IUD, the effectiveness of contraceptive methods depends in part on how reliably they are used.

Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants provide 5 years of protection against pregnancy but can be removed at any time. At the end of the fifth year, the implants will be less effective and must be removed; a new set may be inserted at the time of removal for continued protection if desired.

WHO SHOULD NOT USE JADELLE® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) IMPLANTS

Some women should not use Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants. You should not have the implants inserted if you have:

Any chance that you may be pregnant.

Liver disease. or liver tumors (either benign or cancerous)

Unexplained bleeding between your periods.

Breast cancer .

Blood clots in the legs (thrombophlebitis ), lungs (pulmonary embolism ), or eyes. Women who have had previous blood clots should consult with their health-care provider on whether to use Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants.

History of idiopathic intracranial hypertension .

Hypersensitivity or allergy to levonorgestrel or silicone.

A need for certain medications for seizures (epilepsy ) or tuberculosis (TB) that could make Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) less effective (see Drug Interactions )

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS BEFORE CHOOSING JADELLE® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) IMPLANTS

Tell your health-care provider if you or any family member has ever had:

Women with the above conditions may need to be checked more often by their health-care provider if they choose to use Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants.

Be sure to inform your health-care provider if you smoke or are on any medications.

RISKS OF USING JADELLE® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) IMPLANTS

Risks Based on Experience with the NORPLANT® SYSTEM and Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants.

Insertion and Removal Complications

Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants are inserted and removed by a minor surgical procedure in your healthcare provider's office. You may experience pain, swelling, or bruising. Arm pain, itching. numbness and tingling may also occur following insertion or removal. Some women using NORPLANT® implants experienced infection, abscess. blisters, ulcers, peeling, scarring, or darkening of the skin at the insertion site, inflammation of blood vessels, or nerve injury. NORPLANT® implants occasionally come out of the skin or move to a slightly different position. These events could also occur with Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants.

Removal may take longer than insertion and may be more difficult and/or cause more pain, especially if the implants are difficult to locate. Occasionally, additional incisions and/or office visits are required.

Changes In Menstrual Bleeding Patterns

Most women experience some change in their usual monthly bleeding pattern. These menstrual changes vary from woman to woman and include:

Prolonged bleeding or spotting (more days than you would usually experience)

Bleeding or spotting between periods

Heavy bleeding

No bleeding at all for several months

A combination of these patterns.

It cannot be predicted what kind of change you may experience. Contact your health-care provider if you experience heavy bleeding. Persistent heavy bleeding could lead to anemia. If you have regular periods and then miss a period, you should have a pregnancy test. If you are pregnant, Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants must be removed.

If follicles (eggs and their surrounding cells) in the ovary develop while using Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants, disappearance of the follicles is sometimes delayed, and the follicles may continue to grow beyond their normal size. These enlarged follicles (cysts) may produce abdominal pain in some women, although most women would not be aware of them unless they were found by chance on a physical exam. In most women, these cysts will disappear on their own and should not require surgery. Rarely, they may twist or rupture. and surgery is required.

The risk of having an ectopic pregnancy (a pregnancy that develops outside of the uterus ) during Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) use is less than the risk of ectopic pregnancy in women using no birth control method; however, if you become pregnant while using Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)). that pregnancy is more likely to be ectopic than if you become pregnant using no birth control. Symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy include spotting and cramping pain. Contact your health-care provider if you suspect that you may be pregnant or if you experience abdominal pain.

Blood Vessel Complications

Inflammation of blood vessels can occur with use of Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants or NORPLANT® implants, usually in the same arm as the implants. This may occur with injury to that arm. There have also been reports of blood clots and cardiovascular problems (stroke, heart attack, blood clots in the lung, and deep-vein blood clots) with NORPLANT® implants use. (See also Risks Based on Experience With Combination Oral Contraceptives below. )

Risks Based on Experience With Combination Oral Contraceptives

Combination oral contraceptives contain a progestin such as levonorgestrel and an estrogen. another type of hormone. Some rare but serious side effects have been associated with use of combination oral contraceptives. It is unknown whether the risks associated with combination oral contraceptive use may also be risks with a progestin-only birth control method like Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants.

Risk of Developing Blood Clots

Blood clots and blockage of blood vessels can be serious. In particular, a clot in the veins of the legs can cause inflammation and risk of further clots. A clot that travels to the lungs can cause a sudden blocking of the vessel carrying blood to the lungs, resulting in respiratory collapse and even death. Rarely, clots occur in the blood vessels of the eye and may cause double vision, impaired vision, or even blindness. Any of these conditions can cause serious disability or death. Patients who develop blood clots in the legs, arms. lungs, or eyes should have the Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants removed. In addition, patients restricted to bed rest or who have limited movement for a prolonged period due to surgery or other illness may be at increased risk of developing blood clots. Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants may need to be removed in such patients.

Risk of Heart Attacks and Strokes

The combination pill may increase the tendency to develop strokes (stoppage or rupture of blood vessels in the brain ), angina pectoris. or heart attacks (blockage of blood vessels to the heart). Any of these conditions can cause death or serious disability. Smoking greatly increases the probability of suffering heart attacks and strokes. Use of combination oral contraceptives together with cigarette smoking greatly increases the risk of serious adverse effects on the heart and blood vessels. This risk increases with age and with heavy smoking (15 or more cigarettes per day) and is quite marked in women over 35 years of age who smoke. It is not known whether a similar interaction occurs with Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants. Therefore, women who use Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants should not smoke.

High Blood Pressure

An increase in blood pressure has been reported in combination oral contraceptive users. Elevated blood pressure occurs more often with long-term oral contraceptive exposure. A similar finding has been reported for women using NORPLANT® implants.

Combination pill users probably have a greater risk of gallbladder disease than nonusers. A similar finding has been reported for women using NORPLANT® implants.

In rare cases, the combination pill can cause dangerous liver tumors that can rupture and cause fatal internal bleeding. In addition, a possible but not definite association has been found with the pill and liver cancers. However, liver cancers are very rare. It is not known whether Jadelle (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) can cause liver tumors.

Cancer of the Reproductive Organs and Breasts

Various studies give conflicting reports on the relationship between breast cancer and oral contraceptive use. Oral contraceptive use may slightly increase the chance of having breast cancer diagnosed, particularly after use at a young age. After stopping hormonal contraceptive use, the chances of getting breast cancer begin to go back down.

You should have regular breast examinations by a health care provider and examine your own breasts monthly. Tell your health care provider if you have a family history of breast cancer or if you have had breast nodules or an abnormal mammogram.

Women who currently have or have had breast cancer should not use hormonal contraceptives because breast cancer is usually a hormone-sensitive tumor .

Some studies have found an increase in the incidence of cancer of the cervix in women who use oral contraceptives. However, this finding may be related to factors other than the use of oral contraceptives.

If any of these adverse effects occur following insertion of Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants call your health-care provider immediately:

Sharp chest pain. coughing of blood, or sudden shortness of breath (indicating a possible clot in the lung)

Pain in the calf or arm (indicating a possible clot in the leg or arm)

Crushing chest pain or heaviness in the chest (indicating a possible heart attack)

Sudden severe or persistent headache or vomiting, dizziness or fainting. disturbances of vision or speech, weakness, or numbness in an arm or leg (indicating a possible stroke or other neurologic problem)

Persistent headaches, particularly if you are obese or have had recent weight gain (indicating possible idiopathic intracranial hypertension)

Sudden partial or complete loss of vision (indicating a possible clot in the eye)

Breast lumps (indicating possible breast cancer or fibrocystic disease of the breast; ask your health-care provider to show you how to examine your breasts)

Severe pain or tenderness in the stomach area or lower abdominal area (possibly indicating an ectopic pregnancy, a ruptured or twisted ovarian cyst. or a ruptured liver tumor)

Sleep disorders. weakness, lack of energy, fatigue. or change in mood (possibly indicating severe depression )

Jaundice or a yellowing of the skin or eyeballs, accompanied frequently by fever. fatigue, loss of appetite, dark-colored urine. or light-colored bowel movements (indicating possible liver problems)

Heavy vaginal bleeding

Delayed menstrual cycles after a long interval of regular cycles

Arm pain

Pus or bleeding at implant site

Expulsion of an implant.

Physical Examination and Follow-Up — Prior to insertion of Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants, your health-care provider will inquire about your medical history and perform a physical exam, including a gynecologic exam. Be sure to have periodic checkups as advised by your health-care provider while the implants are in place.

Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism — Blood sugar levels may be increased by progestin-only contraceptives such as Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants. Diabetic patients should be observed carefully while using Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants. Some progestins may increase lipid (eg, cholesterol, triglyceride) levels. Patients being treated for increased lipid levels should be followed closely while using Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants.

Liver Function — Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants may need to be removed if yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes occurs. Hormones may be poorly metabolized in patients with liver diseases.

Fluid Retention —If you experience fluid retention (with swelling of the fingers or ankles, and possibly increased blood pressure) while using Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants, contact your health-care provider.

Emotional Disorders — Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants may need to be removed if you become severely depressed.

Contact Lenses — If you wear contact lenses and notice a change in vision or an inability to wear your lenses, contact your health-care provider.

Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri, benign intracranial hypertension ) — An increase in intracranial pressure has been reported in rare cases in NORPLANT® implant users. Symptoms may include headache (associated with a change in the frequency, pattern, severity, or persistence. Of particular importance are visual disturbances and headaches that do not stop. Contact your health-care provider if you experience these symptoms, particularly if you are obese or have had recent weight gain. While it is unclear if this condition is caused by the implants, your health-care provider may recommend that Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants be removed.

Use in Early Pregnancy —Birth defects have not been reported with Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) use. There have been reports of birth defects when NORPLANT® implants were used unintentionally during early pregnancy, but a cause and effect relationship has not been established. You should check with your health-care provider about the risks of any medication taken during pregnancy. Do not have implants placed if you are pregnant or believe you may be pregnant.

While Breast-Feeding — Women who are breast-feeding or intend to breast-feed should discuss this with their health-care provider when considering the use of Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants. Studies have shown no significant effects on the growth or health of infants whose mothers used NORPLANT® implants beginning 5 to 7 weeks after childbirth.

Infections — Infection at the implant site is uncommon. If infection does occur, contact your health-care provider for treatment. The implants may need to be removed if the infection continues.

Expulsion and Displacement (Movement ) — Expulsion of an implant (i. e. when an implant comes out of the insertion site/skin) may occur. If an implant is expelled, your health-care provider should replace it with a new sterile implant. If infection is present, it should be resolved before any implant is replaced. To avoid pregnancy when only one implant is in place, a back-up nonhormonal contraceptive method (such as condoms or spermicides) should be used.

After Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants are inserted, they may move from the original position. Rarely, movement up to several inches has been reported with NORPLANT® implants. With NORPLANT® implants, movement accompanied by pain and discomfort has been reported. If movement of one or both Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants occurs, particularly if accompanied by pain and/or discomfort, notify your health-care provider.

Certain drugs may interact with the hormone delivered by Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants to make them less effective in preventing pregnancy. Such drugs include drugs used for epilepsy, such as phenytoin (Dilantin® is one brand), carbamazepine (Tegretol® is one brand), oxcarbezepine (Trileptal is one brand), and phenobarbital. Certain other drugs, such as rifampicin, may also make Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants less effective. You may need to use a different birth control method if you require drugs that can make Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants less effective. Discuss this with your health-care provider.

Laboratory Tests Interactions

If you are scheduled for any laboratory tests, tell your health-care provider that you are using Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants. Certain blood tests are affected by synthetic hormones.

SIDE EFFECTS OF JADELLE® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) IMPLANTS.

The most frequently reported side effects are menstrual cycle changes. SEE RISKS OF USING JADELLE® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) IMPLANTS.

Women using Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants have also experienced the following conditions.

A woman who already has acne or excess hair on her face or body could experience worsening of these problems

The following additional complaints have been reported by NORPLANT® implant users.

INSERTION AND REMOVAL OF JADELLE® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) IMPLANTS

Insertion and removal of Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants should be performed by a health-care provider knowledgeable of the procedures.

Prior to insertion of Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants, your health-care provider will ask about your medical history and perform a physical examination, including a pelvic exam. To make sure you are not already pregnant, Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants should be inserted within 7 days after the onset of menstrual bleeding or immediately following termination of pregnancy. If Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants are inserted at any other time during the cycle, pregnancy must be excluded, and a nonhormonal contraceptive method (such as condoms, spermicides, or diaphragms) must be used for at least 7 days following insertion. If ovulation and conception have already occurred before Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) is inserted, pregnancy could occur during the month of insertion.

Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants are inserted under the skin on the inner surface of your upper arm during a minor, outpatient surgical procedure under sterile conditions. A local anesthetic is used to numb a small V-shaped area in the upper arm, after which a small incision. less than 1/8 inch long, is made in the same area. The two implants are placed one at a time with a special instrument. The incision is covered with a small adhesive bandage and protective gauze. Because a local anesthetic is used, there should be little or no discomfort during insertion.

When the anesthetic wears off, there may be some tenderness in the area of the implants for a day or two. Some discoloration, bruising, and swelling may also be present for a few days after the procedure.

Following insertion, you can resume work and other activities. Be careful, however, not to bump the site or get the incision wet for at least 3 days. Also avoid heavy lifting for 2 to 3 days. The protective gauze should remain in place for 24 hours and a small adhesive bandage for 3 days.

Be sure to have periodic checkups as advised by your health-care provider while Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants are in place.

The implants must be removed at the end of 5 years because they become less effective. They can be removed at any time before then, however, if you want to stop using the method for any reason. Removal will take longer than insertion.

Just as for insertion, your health-care provider will numb the area with a local anesthetic. Under sterile conditions, a small (1/8 inch) incision will be made through which the implants should be removed. The removal process takes more time than the insertion procedure. If the implants are too deep, they can be more difficult to remove. If both implants cannot be removed, additional visits and incisions may be required. A nonhormonal method of contraception (such as condoms, spermicides, or diaphragms) should be used until both implants are completely removed.

Avoid bumping the incision site for a few days. The area should be kept clean, dry, and bandaged until healed (3 to 5 days) to avoid infection. Bruising may occur at the implant site following removal.

If you want to continue using Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants, a new set can be inserted at the same time the old set is removed. The second set can be placed in the same arm, and frequently through the incision from which the earlier set was removed, or in the other arm.

If you do not want to continue with Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants and do not want to become pregnant, ask your health-care provider to recommend another birth control method.

Once the implants are removed, the effects reverse quickly and a woman can become pregnant as easily as if she had not used the method.

If you would like more information about Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants, a copy of the Prescribing Information can be obtained from your health-care provider.

WHAT I KNOW ABOUT JADELLE® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) IMPLANTS

I have read this brochure and have discussed it with my health care provider. He/she has answered all my questions. I understand that there are risks as well as benefits from using Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants. I understand that there are other forms of contraception that do not have the risks of Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants, but may have different risks.

I also understand that this form is important. It demonstrates that I am making an informed and carefully considered decision to use Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants. I have checked below those statements that I agree with:

_______I have been told how Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants work to keep women from getting pregnant.

_______I have been told that the risk of getting pregnant while using Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants is less than 1%. (This means that less than one woman out of every 100 who uses Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants may get pregnant each year.)

_______I have been told that I can have Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants taken out at any time and for any reason. I have also been told that, if I have trouble finding a health care provider to remove them, I can call (800) 934-5556 for help.

_______I understand that the Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants are made of a hormone embedded in a flexible solid state silicone polymer.

_______I have been told that Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants are implanted under the skin of my arm during an in-office surgical procedure.

________I have been told that the Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants must be removed at the end of 5 years. The removal procedure is also an in-office surgical procedure and may cause more discomfort and scarring than the insertion procedure.

________I have been told about the side effects of Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants, including that most women have changes in their menstrual bleeding. I have been told that the side effects may vary in severity from one woman to another.

________I have been told about warning signs that may indicate serious conditions and know that I should seek medical attention if any warning signs appear.

_______I have been told that I need to receive a medical checkup yearly and at any time I am having problems.

_______I have been told that Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants do not protect me from HIV infection (AIDS) or any other sexually transmitted disease .

________I have considered all the information in this brochure and voluntarily choose to have Jadelle® (levonorgestrel implants (unavailable in us)) implants inserted by:

_________________________ (Name of Health-Care Provider)

____________________________________ (Patient Signature)(Date)

The patient above has signed this brochure in my presence after I counseled her and answered her questions.

____________________________________ (Health-Care Provider Signature)(Date)

I have provided an accurate translation of this information to the patient whose signature appears above. She has stated that she understands the information and has had an opportunity to have her questions answered.

____________________________________ (Signature of Translator)(Date)

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/29/2008 This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Romergan, Sirop, 5 Mg, Romergan

ROMERGAN, sirop, 5 mg/5 ml | promethazinum

Indicatii:

- tratamentul simptomatic al unor afectiuni alergice: rinite, conjunctivite, urticarie, prurit, angioedem, dermatoze alergice si pruriginoase, dermografism, - tratament simptomatic al fenomenelor histaminice provocate de medicamente histaminoeliberatoare, de intepaturi de insecte si de atingerea unor plante, - antiemetic, - profilaxie si tratament simptomatic in raul de miscare si alte tulburari vestibulare (de exemplu vertij, sindrom Meniere), - sedativ in stari de neliniste, agitatie si pentru combaterea insomniei, - medicatie preanestezica

Contraindicatii:

Nu utilizati Romergan - daca sunteti alergic (hipersensibil) la prometazina si alte fenotiazine sau la oricare dintre excipienti, - daca aveti antecedente de agranulocitoza, - daca aveti glaucom cu unghi inchis, - daca aveti afectiuni cu risc de retentie urinara, - in stari comatoase, - in stari de deprimare ale sistemului nervos central (SNC), - la copii cu varsta sub 2 ani.

Administrare:

Utilizati intotdeauna Romergan exact asa cum v-a spus medicul dumneavoastra. Trebuie sa discutati cu medicul dumneavoastra sau cu farmacistul daca nu sunteti sigur. Copii peste 2 ani: - ca antihistaminic: 0,12 mg/kg si zi, fractionat in 3 prize (sau 25 mg la culcare); - ca antiemetic: 0,25 - 0,5 mg/kg si zi, fractionat in 4-6 prize; - rau de miscare: 0,5 mg/kg si zi, (fara a depasi 5 mg) fractionat in 2 prize; - ca sedativ: 0,5-1 mg/kg si zi. Este de preferat ca administrarea medicamentului sa se inceapa seara. La adulti sunt indicate alte forme farmaceutice care contin prometazina, mai avantajoase din punct de vedere al dozarii.

Daca utilizati mai mult decat trebuie din Romergan Supradozajul se manifesta prin convulsii, hipotensiune marcata, deprimare respiratorie, pierderea cunostientei si coma. Pot apare semne si simptome de tip parasimpatolitic. Daca banuiti un supradozaj, adresati-va de urgenta mediculuii dumneavoastra sau camerei de garda a celui mai apropiat spital.

Daca uitati sa utilizati Romergan Nu luati o doza dubla pentru a compensa doza uitata.

Daca aveti orice intrebari suplimentare cu privire la acest produs, adresati-va medicului dumneavoastra sau farmacistului.

Compozitie:

- Substanta activa este prometazina 5 mg (sub forma de clorhidrat de prometazina 5,65 mg) pe 5 ml sirop. - Celelalte componente sunt: acid ascorbic, p-Hidroxibenzoat de metil, zahar, ulei volatil de portocale, alcool etilic, colorant caramel amoniacal (E 150), apa purificata.

Precautii:

In caz de persistenta sau agravare a simptomelor (de exemplu deprimarea respiratorie, edemul, leziunile cutanate) sau la aparitia unor semne ce pot fi asociate unei afectiuni virale, conduita terapeutica trebuie reevaluata. Deoarece fenotiazinele constituie un factor cle risc ipotetic in declansarea mortii subite la sugar, este recomandat a nu se administra prometazina copiilor sub 2 an. Se impune prudenta la pacientii cu afectiuni cardiovasculare, datorita efectului tahicardizant si hipotensiv al fenotiazinelor. In caz de insuficienta hepatica sau renala grave se impune prudenta, datorita riscului de acumulare. La pacientii cu epilepsie trebuie intensificata supravegherea clinica si EEG datorita posibilitatii scaderii pragului convulsiilor de catre prometazina. Se impune prudenta la bolnavii cu astm bronsic, ulcer gastroduodenal si obstructie pilorica. In timpul tratamentului cu prometazina se va evita expunerea la lumina solara deoarece exista risc de fotosensibilitate.

Atentionari:

Conducerea vehiculelor si folosirea utilajelor Datorita sedarii si celorlalte reactii adverse nervos centrale posibile la prometazina, Romergan poate influenta negativ capacitatea de a conduce vehicule sau de a realiza activitati ce necesita coordonare motorie.

Informatii importante privind unele componente ale Romergan Pacientii cu afectiuni ereditare rare de intoleranta la fructoza, sindrom de malabsorbtie la glucozagalactoza sau insuficienta a zaharazei-izomaltazei nu trebuie sa utilizeze acest medicament. 5 ml sirop contin zahar 3,07g. Pentru dozele mai mari de 5 ml acest lucru trebuie avut in vedere la pacientii cu diabet zaharat. Deoarece contine p-hidroxibenzoat de metil, poate provoca reactii alergice (chiar intarziate). Acest medicament contine o cantitate mica de etanol (alcool etilic)

Reactii adverse:

Ca toate medicamentele, Romergan poate provoca reactii adverse, cu toate ca nu apar la toate persoanele.

Tulburari ale sistemului nervos - sedare excesiva, somnolenta, mai accentuate la inceputul tratamentului; - hipotensiune ortostatica; - tulburari de echilibru, vertij, tulburari de memorie sau de concentrare; - lipsa coordonarii motorii, tremuraturi (mai frecvent la pacientii varstnici); - stare confuzionala, halucinatii, tulburari extrapiramidale; - rar, apar efecte de tip excitator: agitatie, nervozitate, insomnie.

Tulburari ale sistemului imunitar - eritem, eczema, prurit, purpura, urticarie; - edeme, - soc anafilactic; - fotosensibilizare. Rar: edem Quincke;

Tulburari hematologice si limfatice: - leucopenie, neutropenie, exceptional agranulocitoza; - trombocitopenie; - anemie hemolitica.

Tulburari cardiace: - tulburari de ritm ; - hipo - sau hipertensiune arteriala ; - palpitatii ; - edem angioneurotic.

Tulburari gastro-intestinale - uscaciunea gurii, constipatie – dureri de stomac ; - dureri abdominale colicative ; - diaree.

Tulburari oculare - tulburari de acomodare vizuala, midriaza

Tulburari renale si ale caior urinare - efecte anticolinergice (retentie urinara)

Daca vreuna dintre reactiile adverse devine grava sau daca observati orice reactie adversa nementionata in acest prospect, va rugam sa spuneti medicului dumneavoastra sau farmacistului.

Interactiuni cu alte medicamente:

Utilizarea altor medicamente Va rugam sa spuneti medicului dumneavoastra sau farmacistului daca luati sau ati luat recent orice alte medicamente, inclusiv dintre cele eliberate fara prescriptie medicala.

Asocieri contraindicate: - alcool etilic: creste efectul sedativ al prometazinei; in timpul tratamentului cu Romergan, sirop, 5 mg/5 ml trebuie evitate bauturile alcoolice sau medicamentele care contin alcool; - sultoprida, cisaprida: risc major de aritmii ventriculare, in special de torsada varfurilor;

Asocieri care necesita prudenta: - deprimante ale sistemului nervos central: antidepresive sedative, barbiturice, clonidina si substante inrudite, hipnotice, derivati morfinici (analgezice si antitusive), metadona, neuroleptice si anxiolitice; aceste asocieri au un risc crescut de deprimare centrala; - atropina si alte substante atropinice (antidepresive triciclice, antiparkinsoniene anticolinergice, antispastice atropinice, disopiramida, neuroleptice fenotiazinice) potenteaza efectele de tip parasimpatolitic (retentie urinara, constipatie, uscaciunea gurii) prin efect aditiv cu prometazina; - propranolol, sulfadoxina-pirimetamina, clorochina: efect hipotensor marcat; - bromocriptina: creste efectul de scadere a prolactinemiei; - litiu: efect neurotoxic.

Utilizarea Romergan cu alimente si bauturi In timpul tratamentului cu ROMERGAN, sirop, 5 mg/5 ml trebuie evitate bauturile alcoolice deoarece alcoolul duce la cresterea efectului sedativ al prometazinei.

Sarcina si alaptarea:

Nu este cazul, datorita administrarii medicamentului exclusiv la copii.

Prezentare ambalaj:

Romergan se prezinta ca un lichid siropos, limpede, brun, cu gust dulce si miros caracteristic de portocale Cutie cu un flacon din sticla bruna a 50 ml sirop si o masura dozatoare cu gradatii de la 2,5 la 20 ml

Conditii de pastrare:

A nu se lasa la indemana si vederea copiilor. A se pastra la temperaturi sub 25?C, in ambalajul original. Nu utilizati Romergan dupa data de expirare inscrisa pe eticheta si pe cutie dupa EXP. A se utiliza in maximum 21 zile, dupa prima deschidere a flaconului. Data de expirare se refera la ultima zi a lunii respective.

Medicamentele nu trebuie aruncate pe calea apei menajere sau a reziduurilor menajere. Intrebati farmacistul cum sa eliminati medicamentele care nu va mai sunt necesare. Aceste masuri vor ajuta la protejarea mediului.

Medicamente alternative (cu aceeasi substanta activa):

Medicamente cu indicatii asemanatoare (din aceeasi clasa):

Buy Cerclerol - Ezetimibe, Simvastatin - Online Without Prescriptions, Cerclerol

Vytorin (Cerclerol)

Vytorin is used for treating high cholesterol along with a cholesterol-lowering diet. Vytorin is a combination of 2 medicines. Ezetimibe works by reducing the amount of cholesterol that your body absorbs from your diet. Simvastatin is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor or "statin." It works by blocking an enzyme that is necessary for your body to make cholesterol. Lowering cholesterol levels in the blood reduces the chance of heart disease, heart attacks, and strokes. Vytorin has not been shown to reduce heart attacks or strokes more than simvastatin alone.

Use Vytorin as directed by your doctor.

Take Vytorin by mouth with or without food, preferably in the evening, unless directed otherwise by your doctor.

Taking Vytorin at the same time each day will help you remember to take it.

If you also take a bile acid sequestrant (eg, cholestyramine, colestipol, colesevelam), do not take it within 2 hours before or 4 hours after taking Vytorin. Check with your doctor if you have questions.

For best results, Vytorin should be used along with exercise, a low-cholesterol/low-fat diet, and a weight-loss program if you are overweight. Follow the diet and exercise program given to you by your health care provider.

Eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice may increase the amount of Vytorin in your blood, which may increase your risk for serious side effects. The risk may be greater with large amounts of grapefruit or grapefruit juice. Avoid large amounts of grapefruit or grapefruit juice (eg, more than one quart daily). Talk with your doctor or pharmacist if you have questions about including grapefruit or grapefruit juice in your diet while you are taking Vytorin.

Most people with high cholesterol do not feel sick. Continue to take Vytorin even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.

If you miss a dose of Vytorin, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Vytorin.

Store Vytorin at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Vytorin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredients: Ezetimibe, Simvastatin.

Do NOT use Vytorin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Vytorin

you have liver problems or ongoing abnormal liver function test results

you are taking another medicine that contains simvastatin or ezetimibe

you are taking an HIV protease inhibitor (eg, nelfinavir, lopinavir, ritonavir), itraconazole, ketoconazole, a macrolide or ketolide antibiotic (eg, clarithromycin, erythromycin, troleandomycin), mibefradil, or nefazodone

you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Vytorin. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you are a woman of childbearing age

if you have kidney problems, muscle problems, or a family history of muscle problems; low blood pressure; uncontrolled seizures; or serious metabolic, endocrine, or electrolyte problems

if you are scheduled for major surgery, have recently had a major trauma, or have a severe infection or history of alcohol abuse

if you have had an organ transplant and are taking medicine to suppress a rejection reaction.

Some medicines may interact with Vytorin. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Amiodarone, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril), azole antifungals (eg, itraconazole, ketoconazole), cyclosporine, danazol, delavirdine, diltiazem, fibrates (eg, clofibrate, fenofibrate), fluconazole, gemfibrozil, HIV protease inhibitors (eg, ritonavir), imatinib, macrolide antibiotics (eg, erythromycin), macrolide immunosuppressives (eg, tacrolimus), mibefradil, nefazodone, niacin, nicotinic acid, streptogramins, telithromycin, verapamil, or voriconazole because side effects, such as muscle pain, may occur

Bosentan, carbamazepine, cholestyramine, hydantoins (eg, phenytoin), rifampin, or St. John's wort because they may decrease Vytorin's effectiveness

Anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Vytorin.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Vytorin may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Vytorin may cause dizziness, drowsiness, or changes in vision. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Vytorin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

It may take several weeks for Vytorin to work.

Proper dental care is important while you are taking Vytorin. Brush and floss your teeth and visit the dentist regularly.

Vytorin may harm your liver. Your risk may be greater if you drink alcohol while you are using Vytorin. Talk to your doctor before you take Vytorin or other fever reducers if you drink more than 3 drinks with alcohol per day.

Vytorin may cause injury to your muscles, especially when taken at higher doses or when taken with certain other medicines. Contact your doctor right away if you experience muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, especially with a fever.

Some patients taking Vytorin have reported poor memory or trouble sleeping. If you experience these effects, check with your doctor.

Lab tests, including blood cholesterol levels, liver function tests, or muscle tests, may be performed while you use Vytorin. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Vytorin should be used with extreme caution in children younger 10 years; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Do not use Vytorin if you are pregnant. Avoid becoming pregnant while you are taking it. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor right away. It is not known if Vytorin is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Vytorin.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Diarrhea; flu-like symptoms; headache; pain in the arms or legs; tiredness; upper respiratory tract infection.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing or swallowing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); blurred vision or vision changes; change in the amount of urine; chest pain; dark urine; depression; fast heartbeat; fever; loss of appetite; muscle tenderness, pain, or weakness; nausea; numbness, tingling, burning, or weakness in the arms, hands, feet, or legs; pale stools; stomach tenderness; unexplained pain in the stomach or mid-upper back; unusual bruising or bleeding; unusual tiredness; vomiting; yellowing of the skin or eyes.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

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About Us And Our History, Dilax

About Us – DILAX Group

DILAX is the world's leading provider of intelligent system solutions for capturing and managing people flows. Since our founding in 1988, we have been supporting companies in the retail and public transport sectors with a comprehensive range of services.

Our core competencies are automatic people counting, dynamic seat management and innovative data analysis tools. Our integrated approach enables our customers to successfully optimize their processes, increase their efficiency and improve service for their own customers.

With two specialized business units, we support our customers from the consultation and quotation stage up to the operation of entire systems. Complex hosting and reporting services are part of our portfolio as well. We offer complete one-stop solutions for development and production, enabling us to professionally and quickly implement our customers’ individual requirements.

Our team of approximately 130 highly qualified employees offers expert service in all areas from six international locations. We serve over 300 customers in around 30 countries worldwide. Our customers include all major rail vehicle and bus manufacturers, large and small public transport operators and public transport authorities as well as leading shopping malls and retail chains.

Our History

Founding of DILAX Intelcom Iberica S. L. / Spain

Founding of DILAX France SAS / France

Founding of DILAX Systems UK Ltd. / Great Britain

Transfer of production and material purchases

from Switzerland to Berlin

Founding of DILAX Systems Inc. / Canada

100% acquisition of DILAX

by Intelcom GmbH – changing the name to DILAX Intelcom GmbH and DILAX Intelcom AG

Founding of DILAX International AG / Switzerland

by Aventic und Partners AG (UBS AG), Intelcom GmbH and PLU (entrepreneur/Switzerland)

Collaboration between Intelcom GmbH & DILAX AG

development and establishment of a market-oriented sales network and marketing – focus on Germany

Drugbank Salmeterol, Salmetedur

For the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Salmeterol is a long acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA), usually only prescribed for severe persistent asthma following previous treatment with a short-acting beta agonist such as salbutamol and is prescribed concurrently with a corticosteroid, such as beclometasone. The primary noticable difference of salmeterol to salbutamol is that the duration of action lasts approximately 12 hours in comparison with 4-6 hours of salbutamol. When used regularly every day as presecribed, inhaled salmeterol decreases the number and severity of asthma attacks. However, it is not for use for relieving an asthma attack that has already started. Inhaled salmeterol works like other beta 2-agonists, causing bronchodilatation by relaxing the smooth muscle in the airway so as to treat the exacerbation of asthma. Salmeterol is similar in action to formoterol, however formoterol has been demonstrated to have a faster onset of action than salmeterol as a result of a lower lipophilicity, and has also been demonstrated to be more potent - a 12 µg dose of formoterol has been demonstrated to be equivalent to a 50 µg dose of salmeterol.

Mechanism of action

Salmeterol's long, lipophilic side chain binds to exosites near beta(2)-receptors in the lungs and on bronchiolar smooth muscle, allowing the active portion of the molecule to remain at the receptor site, continually binding and releasing. Beta(2)-receptor stimulation in the lung causes relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, bronchodilation, and increased bronchial airflow.

Symptoms of overdose include angina (chest pain), dizziness, dry mouth, fatigue, flu-like symptoms, headache, heart irregularities, high or low blood pressure, high blood sugar, insomnia, muscle cramps, nausea, nervousness, rapid heartbeat, seizures, and tremor. By the oral route, no deaths occurred in rats at 1,000 mg/kg (approximately 81,000 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults and approximately 38,000 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in children on a mg/m 2 basis).

Humans and other mammals

SNP Mediated Effects

SNP Mediated Adverse Drug Reactions

Predicted ADMET features

Human Intestinal Absorption

Blood Brain Barrier

P-glycoprotein inhibitor I

P-glycoprotein inhibitor II

Renal organic cation transporter

CYP450 2C9 substrate

CYP450 2D6 substrate

CYP450 3A4 substrate

CYP450 1A2 substrate

CYP450 2C9 inhibitor

CYP450 2D6 inhibitor

CYP450 2C19 inhibitor

CYP450 3A4 inhibitor

CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity

Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity

Rat acute toxicity

2.0830 LD50, mol/kg

hERG inhibition (predictor I)

hERG inhibition (predictor II)

ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR. a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )

Glaxosmithkline

Glaxo group ltd dba glaxosmithkline

Aerosol, metered dose

oral; respiratory (inhalation)

oral; respiratory (inhalation)

Serevent Diskus 60 50 mcg/dose Powder Inhaler

Serevent Diskhaler Device

Serevent 50 mcg/dose Disk

Serevent diskus 50 mcg

Serevent Diskus 50 mcg/dose Metered Inhalation Powder

DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.

pKa (Strongest Acidic)

pKa (Strongest Basic)

Hydrogen Acceptor Count

Hydrogen Donor Count

Polar Surface Area

Rotatable Bond Count

122.39 m 3 ·mol -1

Number of Rings

Panayiotis Procopiou, “Novel process for preparing salmeterol.” U. S. Patent US20030162840, issued August 28, 2003.

Salpeter SR, Buckley NS, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE: Meta-analysis: effect of long-acting beta-agonists on severe asthma exacerbations and asthma-related deaths. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jun 20;144(12):904-12. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [PubMed:16754916 ]

Therapeutic Targets Database

Guide to Pharmacology

Drug Product Database

The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE is combined with Salmeterol.

Acebutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Salmeterol.

Alprenolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Salmeterol.

The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amineptine is combined with Salmeterol.

The serum concentration of Salmeterol can be increased when it is combined with Amiodarone.

Salmeterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Amiodarone.

The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Salmeterol.

The serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Salmeterol.

Salmeterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Anagrelide.

The serum concentration of Salmeterol can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.

Salmeterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Arsenic trioxide.

Salmeterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Artemether.

Targets

Kind Protein Organism Human Pharmacological action yes Actions agonist General Function: Protein homodimerization activity Specific Function: Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine. Gene Name: ADRB2 Uniprot ID: P07550 Molecular Weight: 46458.32 Da

References

Rong Y, Arbabian M, Thiriot DS, Seibold A, Clark RB, Ruoho AE: Probing the salmeterol binding site on the beta 2-adrenergic receptor using a novel photoaffinity ligand, [(125)I]iodoazidosalmeterol. Biochemistry. 1999 Aug 31;38(35):11278-86. [PubMed:10471277 ]

Finney PA, Donnelly LE, Belvisi MG, Chuang TT, Birrell M, Harris A, Mak JC, Scorer C, Barnes PJ, Adcock IM, Giembycz MA: Chronic systemic administration of salmeterol to rats promotes pulmonary beta(2)-adrenoceptor desensitization and down-regulation of G(s alpha). Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Mar;132(6):1261-70. [PubMed:11250877 ]

Green SA, Rathz DA, Schuster AJ, Liggett SB: The Ile164 beta(2)-adrenoceptor polymorphism alters salmeterol exosite binding and conventional agonist coupling to G(s). Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Jun 15;421(3):141-7. [PubMed:11516429 ]

Meliton AY, Munoz NM, Liu J, Lambertino AT, Boetticher E, Myo S, Myou S, Zhu X, Johnson M, Leff AR: Blockade of LTC4 synthesis caused by additive inhibition of gIV-PLA2 phosphorylation: Effect of salmeterol and PDE4 inhibition in human eosinophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Aug;112(2):404-10. [PubMed:12897749 ]

Brogden RN, Faulds D: Salmeterol xinafoate: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in reversible obstructive airways disease. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1992 Mar-Apr;20(2):72-84. [PubMed:1359777 ]

Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind Protein Organism Human Pharmacological action unknown Actions substrate General Function: Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity Specific Function: Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e. g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot. Gene Name: CYP3A4 Uniprot ID: P08684 Molecular Weight: 57342.67 Da

References

Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link ]

Kind Protein Organism Human Pharmacological action unknown Actions substrate General Function: Oxygen binding Specific Function: Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Gene Name: CYP3A5 Uniprot ID: P20815 Molecular Weight: 57108.065 Da

References

Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link ]

Kind Protein Organism Human Pharmacological action unknown Actions substrate General Function: Oxygen binding Specific Function: Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Gene Name: CYP3A7 Uniprot ID: P24462 Molecular Weight: 57525.03 Da

References

Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link ]

Kind Protein Organism Human Pharmacological action unknown Actions inhibitor General Function: Steroid hydroxylase activity Specific Function: Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme. Gene Name: CYP2C8 Uniprot ID: P10632 Molecular Weight: 55824.275 Da

References

Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. [PubMed:15601807 ]

Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions. and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC). a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta. Genome British Columbia. and Genome Canada. a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canada's national genomics strategy with $900 million in funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc.

Betamethasone - Brand Name List From, Helpoderm

Betamethasone

See also.

Disclaimer: The indications, uses and warnings for individual medications outside the USA are determined by local regulatory bodies in each country or region. The Drugs. com website is intended primarily for audiences in the United States and its territories. Indications, uses and warnings on Drugs. com patient information leaflets are derived from FDA product labels and may differ in countries outside the USA. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided on this page is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drugs. com does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend specific therapies. The information on this page is not a substitute for the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that a drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Drugs. com does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information provided here. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical advice.

Chemical formula: C22H29FO5 Drugbank ID: DB00443 ATC code(s): A07EA04, C05AA05, D07AC01, D07BC01, D07CC01, D07XC01, H02AB01, R01AD06, R03BA04, S01BA06, S01BB04, S01CA05, S01CB04, S02BA07, S03BA03, S03CA06

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Klion Group Company, Klion

Employees participated in shooting video to 8-anniversary of Klion group.

The Klion Group Company is the guarantee of high-quality seafood supplied to Ukrainian market from different corners of the world. Other our achievements will only prove that We are the best in this business! This statement is not too high-profile taking into consideration our wide experience and professional progress.

Properly set tasks ask and their sound performance determine our Company’s work style. Consecutive approach to their identification and realization allowed us to elaborate a definite strategy to achieve effective results. This approach enabled us to outperform our competitors and occupy the top place among companies importing and trading frozen fish and seafood.

Mutually beneficial cooperation and honest business relations are the assets we offer to our partners. Desire to meet our clients' and customers’ needs, using high-tech equipment in the production and unlimited potential of its personnel ensure Klion Group’s success.

Captation - Definition Of Captation By The Free Dictionary, Captaton

Captation

References in periodicals archive ?

Il a retrouve dans ce cinema cette [beaucoup moins que]atmosphere[beaucoup plus grand que] qui fait que la complexite des relations humaines est rendue a travers la captation des signes exterieurs qui disent l'interieur selon le credo bergmanien [beaucoup moins que]le monde est visage et le visage est monde[beaucoup plus grand que] ou ce que le philosophe Gilles Deleuze appelle [beaucoup moins que]l'abstraction lyrique[beaucoup plus grand que].

L'enqueteur procedait a des enregistrements sonores et a la captation d'images (photographies et videos).

Enfin, les risques de captation de la politique environnementale par des interets particuliers pour retarder ou eviter des politiques plus rigoureuses demeurent inherents aux processus de negociations occultes.

est devenu la figure incontournable de la television, realisant des scores de captation du public frisant la ceremonie religieuse avant que d'autres formules ne viennent prendre le relais ; voir les succes des chaines d'info en continu.

La captation etatique du gouvernement autochtone au Canada II.

C'est ainsi donc qu'avec un strict minimum Teno monte un dispositif de captation de la parole au diapason du sujet qu'il traite.

Puisque les montants en cause ne sont pas negligeables et qu'en 1998, la taxe TGE represente plus de 330 millions de dollars, il serait important de faire une etude pour determiner si cette situation equivaut a un conge fiscal pour les entreprises impliquees ou a une autre forme de captation par le monde municipal de la part scolaire de l'assiette fonciere, afin de mieux asseoir la restructuration qui etait en cours.

Le fait de creer un systeme de signes, implique une operation mentale de captation et de motivation et de transformation.

C'est ce qui a amene le ministre espagnol de l'Interieur, FernEindez Diaz, de signaler que [beaucoup moins que]la grande cooperation entre les services de securite marocains et espagnols[beaucoup plus grand que] avait conduit, vendredi, au demantelement d'une presumee cellule de captation et d'envoi de jihadistes en Syrie.

Eecrit par Mohamed Boundi Terrorisme Les forces de securite espagnoles ont reussi vendredi, grace a la collaboration de leurs homologues marocaines, de demanteler une cellule responsable de la captation et de l'envoi de presumes [beaucoup moins que]jihadistes[beaucoup plus grand que] a destination de la Syrie, a indique, vendredi, le ministere espagnol de l'Interieur dans un communique parvenu a Al Bayane.

Le Prix du jury est alle a Mahacine Elhacahadi pour son court metrage [beaucoup moins que]Carte postale[beaucoup plus grand que] ; une captation de l'univers fabuleux d'un village amazigh perche dans les hauteurs de l'Atlas.

Il brouille les pistes a plusieurs niveaux en recuperant les signes et les dispositifs dominants pour les retourner dans une perspective cinematographique originale. il met au centre de sa demarche de mise en scene l'element de base de captation des images aujourd'hui, le reportage televise.

Ozid, Ozid

Product Description Common use Prednisone is a corticosteroid used to reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms in a variety of disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and severe cases of asthma. Prednisone decreases or prevents tissues from responding to inflammation and also modifies the body's response to certain immune stimulation.

Dosage and direction Take it orally with or without food (it's recommended that prednisone be taken with food). Commonly used dosage is various from 5 to 60 mg per day and often is adjusted based on the response of the condition being treated. Corticosteroids should be used for several days for best result. Prolonged therapy with this drug causes the adrenal glands to atrophy and stop producing cortisol, so when Prednisone is discontinued after a period of prolonged therapy, the dose of Prednisone must be tapered to allow the adrenal glands time to recover. Note: this instruction presented here just for review. It's very necessary to consult your doctor before using. It will help you to get the best results.

Precautions You should not start taking Prednisone if you are suffering from a severe bacterial, fungal or viral infection. Do not use this drug without doctor's permission if your medical history includes: kidney disease, a psychiatric condition, heart disease or high blood pressure, liver disease, Diverticulitis, Ulcerative Colitis, or stomach ulcers, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, Myasthenia gravis, osteoporosis or any other medical disorders. Do not stop taking Prednisone suddenly because your own adrenal glands cannot quickly produce enough cortisone. Also note that this drug increases appetite! So you must control your meal. Use caution in children because Prednisone can affect growth. Prednisone should not be used during pregnancy, becoming pregnant or lactating without doctor's advice. Do not use before breast-feeding without doctor's advice.

Contraindications Prednisone is not allowed to people who are hypersensitive to any components of this medicine. Also Prednisone contraindicated in the presence of infections, especially tuberculosis, fungal infectons, amebiasis, vaccinia and varicella, and antibiotic-resistant infections; lactation.

Possible side effect They may include all types of an allergic reaction. Also the most serious side effects include: problems with your vision; swelling, rapid weight gain, feeling short of breath; severe depression, unusual thoughts or behavior, seizure; bloody or tarry stools, coughing up blood; pancreatitis; low potassium; dangerously high blood pressure. Less serious include: sleep problems, mood changes; acne, dry skin, thinning skin, bruising or discoloration; slow wound healing; increased sweating; headache, dizziness, spinning sensation; nausea, stomach pain, bloating; changes in the shape or location of body fat. If you experience one of them stop using Prednisone and tell your doctor as soon as possible. Also consult with your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual.

Drug interaction Prednisine interacts with the following dugs: aspirin; a diuretic; a blood thinner such as warfarin; cyclosporine; insulin or diabetes medications you take by mouth; ketoconazole; rifampin; seizure medications such as phenytoin or phenobarbital. Also note that interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. As usual it affects the the effect of drugs, so consult with your doctor about how it interactions are being managed or should be managed.

Missed dose If you forgot to take your dose in time, please do it as soon as you remember. But do not take if it is too late or almost time for your next dose. Do not increase your recommended dose. Take your usually dose next day in the same regularly time.

Overdose Symptoms of Prednisone overdose may include thinning skin, easy bruising, changes in the shape or location of body fat, increased acne or facial hair, menstrual problems, impotence, or loss of interest in sex. If you experience one of them or any unusual symptoms call your doctor immediately.

Storage Store at room temperature between 59-77 degrees F (15-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture, kids and pets. Do not use after expiration term.

Disclaimer We provide only general information about medications which does not cover all directions, possible drug integrations, or precautions. Information at the site cannot be used for self-treatment and self-diagnosis. Any specific instructions for a particular patient should be agreed with your health care adviser or doctor in charge of the case. We disclaim reliability of this information and mistakes it could contain. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other indirect damage as a result of any use of the information on this site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

Product Description Common use This medicine is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) used to treat ulcers, heartburn, gastroesophageal reflux, erosive esophagitis, or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and also ulcers generated by long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To treat ulcers caused by bacterial infections this medicine may be used in combination with antibiotics such as amoxicillin or clarithromycin. Prilosek significantly alleviates such their symptoms as heartburn, difficulty swallowing, coughing, and sleep problems. Prilosek works by blocking acid production in the stomach. The medicine may be used to treat other conditions diagnosed by your doctor.

Dosage and directions Follow all the directions provided by your doctor. Take this medication (15-30 mg) orally once a day in morning before a meal with a full glass of water or according to your doctor's recommendations. Swallow the tab whole, do not chew, crush, or open the capsule as may destroy the drug and/or increase side effects. Antacids drugs can be taken together with this medicine, if necessary. Dosage and duration of treatment depends on your medical condition and response to the therapy. Take it the same time each day to avoid missing a dose. In the case of aggravation or worsening of your illness notify your doctor immediately. It may take 1 - 4 days before Prilosek acts in full measure. Treatment with Prilosec should not be stopped even if certain amelioration is achieved. Improvement of symptoms is observed within 4 to 8 weeks in treatment of gastric ulcers or reflux disease. Treatment of heartburn usually lasts for 14 days. If heartburn persists after this period of time or even worsens, or if you need more than one course of treatment every 4 months, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Precautions Prilosec is not recommended during pregnancy. Breastfeeding when using this drug is not recommended as it is not known whether it gets into breast milk. Tell your doctor if allergic reaction appears. Your doctor or pharmacist should be aware of your health problems, to provide health care, especially if you have problems such as liver disease, other stomach problems (e. g. tumors), heartburn over 3 months, unexplained weight loss, constant nausea/vomiting /stomach pain, blood in vomit or black stools. Some symptoms may witness about a more serious condition. This medicine may cause dizziness. Be careful performing work associated with concentration of attention, such as driving or operating mechanisms. Restrict consumption of alcoholic beverages. Start or interruption in taking any medicine should be be approved by your doctor. If you do not notice any improvement of your symptoms or if they even become worse, inform your doctor about it. Do not share this medicine with anybody with similar symptoms. Do not use this medicine to treat other diseases.

Possible side effects Adverse reactions that may disappear during treatment include headache, constipation, cough, dizziness, or rash. If they continue or are bothersome, let your doctor know about it. An allergic reaction to this medicine is not expected, but seek immediate medical help if it happens. Symptoms of an allergic reaction appear as rash, itching, dizziness, swelling, or difficult breathing. If you notice other reactions of your body which are not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Prilosec can decreases elimination of diazepam, warfarin and phenytoin. These are medications metabolized in the liver by oxidation. Drugs which are metabolized with help of cytochrome P-450 system (e. g. cyclosporine, disulfiram, benzodiazepines) may also interact with Prilosec because it is metabolized the same way. Clarithromycin is also metabolized by cytochrome P450, concomitant administration of clarithromycin with Prilosec may result in increases in plasma levels of Prilosec. Concomitant use of Prilosec and clarithromycin may result in increases in plasma levels of erithromycin, and 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin. You may need additional monitoring of your condition if you are taking ampicillin, cilostazol, cyclosporine, diazepam, digoxin, disulfiram, iron, itraconazole, ketoconazole, moclobemide, phenytoin, sucralfate, vorconizole, or warfarin. This medicine may be combined with antacids if they were prescribed by your doctor. Potent acid-reducing drugs such as Prilosec diminish the effectiveness of sucralfate, and other medicaitons such as the antifungals ketoconazole and itraconazole. If instructed to take any of these medicines while taking Prilosec, consult your doctor or pharmacist regarding the proper timing of each dose, usually Prilosec is taken 30 minutes before sucralfate.

Missed dose If you missed a dose take the medication as soon as you remember. If it is almost time of your next dose, just skip its intake and return to your regular schedule.

Overdose If suppose that took too much of Prilosec contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. Symptoms of overdose are confusion, blurred vision, unusual sweating, or unusually fast heartbeat.

Storage Store at room temperature between 59-77 F (15-25 C). Do not expose to high humidity or keep in a bathroom. Hide Prilosec away from children and pets. If your treatment requires an extended period of time, take care about refills before your supply is over.

Disclaimer We provide only general information about medications which does not cover all directions, possible drug integrations, or precautions. Information at the site cannot be used for self-treatment and self-diagnosis. Any specific instructions for a particular patient should be agreed with your health care adviser or doctor in charge of the case. We disclaim reliability of this information and mistakes it could contain. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other indirect damage as a result of any use of the information on this site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

E-Doc Interactive - Eye Infections And The Use Of Ocular Antibiotics, Spersanicol

Highly effective preparations are available for the treatment of common eye infections and these drugs can play an important role in everyday patient care. Most of these drugs are administered as drops or ointments and act topically on the conjunctiva or eyelid.

Mandi Schultz B. Sc (Micro), B. Pharm

The eye is a complex and sensitive organ and is therefore also more vulnerable to trauma and infections. It is important for the nurse to have a thorough knowledge of the eye so that she can advise patients on the protection of the eye, correct use of eye medication and can recognise any condition that might require expert medical attention.

EXAMINATION OF THE EYE The recognition of medical emergencies and injuries to the eye, also the occurrence of infections and less serious problems, necessitate a measure of proficiency on the part of the nurse to examine the eye.

After taking a complete and pertinent health history from the patient the following must be established during the examination:

Is there any discharge?

When and how did the symptoms start?

What is the nature of the pain and has it spread?

It is important to test the patient?s sight; i. e. can he see at all as well as previouslyIt is important to test both the good and the injured eye as this can indicate bleeding, a foreign object or a detached retina. If the eyes are damaged in any way, medical attention must be sought immediately..

In the clinic or hospital the nurse should look for:

Any signs of inflammation

Any wound or bleeding

Colour changes on the cornea and membrane ? e. g. the membrane may be red as a result of dilation or damage to blood vessels with haemorrhaging.

Irregularities in the continuity of any of the structures

Haemorrhaging or foreign objects behind the cornea.

Any signs of bleeding or trauma to the eye must be referred immediately.

The nurse must also examine the eyelid for any signs of inflammation or infection. When examining the eyelid, the patient should look down and the upper lid should be peeled upwards. This is done by pulling the eyelashes downwards and exerting pressure on the centre of the eyelid using a cottonwool bud, match or thumb. Then the lid is lifted upwards by pulling on the eyelashes. In this way the eyelid can be properly examined. The lower lid is easily pulled away from the eye.

COMMON EYE PROBLEMS

Eye infections, which may present in the clinic or hospital, include:

Bacterial conjunctivitis

Viral conjunctivitis

Trachoma (Chlamydial Keratoconjunctivitis)

Dacrocystitis

Bacterial conjunctivitis occurs as a result of infection of one or both eyes, usually by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae, resulting in a copious purulent discharge making the eye sticky but not affecting the patient?s vision. Other causative organisms include Haemophilus aegyptius and Moraxella lacumata. Babies may contract Gonococcal conjunctivitis during birth due to an infected mother.

Bacterial conjunctivitis is self-limiting and usually lasts about 10 days without treat-ment. A baby with Gonococcal conjunc-tivitis should be referred for treatment with systemic antibiotics and is regarded as a medical emergency as the cornea may be affected. Bacterial conjunctivitis is usually treated with an antibiotic ointment, which should be applied three times daily. The eye should be bathed in warm water to remove the discharge and care should be taken not to infect the other eye.

Viral conjunctivitis may be as a result of Adenovirus or as a result of the Herpes simplex virus. Adenovirus conjunctivitis is usually associated with pharyngitis, fever and swelling of the lymph glands. The conjunctiva is red and there is a watery discharge. The Herpes simplex virus produces a follicular conjunctivitis with the formation of a dendritic lesion. More extensive ulcers may also occur in a chronic infection. There is not specific treatment for Adenovirus conjunctivitis, although antibioticointments may be used to prevent any secondary bacterial infections. Herpes simplex virus conjunctivitis may be treated with antivirals, such as acyclovir, although if suspected the patient must be referred for proper diagnosis using fluorescein.

Trachoma is an eye disease caused by Chlamydia trochomatis and is characterised by follicles, papillary hyperplasia and vascularisation of the cornea. This leads to the formation of lesions and consequent blindness. In the acute stage the eye is red and itchy and lacrimation is excessive. The patient usually presents with visual disturbances although it is often acquired during childhood when it is more difficult to diagnose. The condition is usually associated with poor living conditions and poor hygiene and is spread via direct contact. Any patient presenting with signs of trachoma must be referred immediately as early treatment can prevent the onset of blindness.

Trachoma is treated with oral tetracyclines or erythromycin for three to five weeks. Topical tetracycline ointment can be applied at the same time or a solution of 1 ? 3% tetracycline can be used to bath the eye twice a day for three months. Good personal hygiene is essential to prevent reinfection.

Dacrocystitis is an infection of the tearducts and glands and the patient usually complains of pain in the eye, particularly in the corner and a watery or tacky discharge. The corner of the eye is usually swollen and pressure will cause the emission of pus from the puncture. Topical and systemic antibiotics are used to treat the condition.

The following eyelid problems may present in the clinic or hospital:

Stye (Hordeolum)

Blepharitis

Chalazion

Cellulitis

Entropion and Ectropion

A Stye (Hordeolum) is a small swollen abscess on the eyelid caused by bacterial infection, usually Staphylococcus. The infection occurs in the sebaceous gland on the margin of the eyelid. It is red, swollen and very painful and it often has a head containing yellow pus. Should this head or point be on the inside of the lid, it is an abscess of the Meibomian gland. If the point is on the outside, it is smaller and on the edge of the eyelid and regarded as a Stye.

Styes are treated with an antibiotic cream or eyedrops administered every two hours and a warm compress. It may sometimes be necessary to lance and drain the abscess.

Blepharitis is an infection of the eyelid edge and is usually chronic. Patients complain of painful eyelids, which are worse in the mornings. The edges of the eyelids are crusty and the eyes are red. This sometimes follows repeated Styes on the eyelids. This condition is more common in elderly patients and they often present with seborrhoeic dermatitis as well.

Blepharitis may be classified as either Anterior blepharitis or Posterior blepharitis. Both types present with the same symptoms of eye irritation, burning, swelling and a stick morning discharge. This infection is as a result of heavy colo-nisation by Staphylococcus aureus and may never be controlled once it has been allowed to set in. Lidhygiene is absolutely essential and the patient must be made aware of the need for total commitment to the eradication of the infection.

The lashes should be cleaned regularly using cottonwool dipped in a bicarb solution or baby shampoo. Warm compresses can be used to soften the crusts for easier removal. The application of antibiotic eye ointment should follow the lid washing and then be applied three times a day. Ointments, generally chloramphenicol or sulphonamides must be used so as to coat the eyelid and lashes adequately. Systemic antibiotics may sometimes be of value if the topical applications have failed. Artificial tears can be used to provide symptomatic relief.

Chalazion is a firm swelling of the eyelid often found together with Blepharitis and is a cyst of the meibomian gland and is the result of inflammation and granulation.

Cellulitis usually results from sepsis in the vicinity of the eye and is characterised by extensive swelling and redness of the eyelid, usually only on one side. If it were to spread to the eye socket, it may cause meningitis and even blindness. Cellulitis should be referred to a medical practitioner as systemic antibiotics are indicated.

Entropion and Ectropion is usually a problem in the elderly and is the inward or outward turning or folding of the eyelid. Sulphonamides can be administered to prevent infection, but the patient should be referred to an ophthalmologist for surgery.

Bacteria are the cause of most eye infections, whereas viral and fungal infections are much less common. Superficial infections such as Blepharitis and conjunctivitis are generally treated with topical agents. More serious infections may require subconjunctival injections. Acute and chronic trachoma may require 1 to 2 months of continued treatment with concurrent use of appropriate oral anti-chlamydial therapy.

The same precautions applying to the indiscriminate use of systemic antibiotics hold for those used topically. The widespread prescription of these agents may result in the emergence of resistant strains.

Chloramphenicol is usually the drug of choice due to the fact that ocular toxicity is low, penetration is excellent and thedrug is active against a wide spectrum of organisms. Only if there is not an adequate response or if resistance can be demonstrated, should an alternate preparation or combinations of agents be resorted to.

Chloramphenicol preparations available in South Africa include Chloromex Ophthalmic Ointment?, Chlornicol?, Chlo-romycetin?, Chloroptic? and Spersanicol?.

Sulphacetamide is a non-antibiotic, anti-microbial agent that is very useful in treating superficial infections such as Bacterial conjunctivitis and Blepharitis. The ophthalmic dose for an infection is usually ?instil every 2 to 6 hours?. Itis considered useful to use Sulphacetamide prophylactically to prevent infection after an eye injury.

Sulphacetamide preparations available in South Africa include Covosulf?, Spersamide ? and Sulphacetamide Eye Ointment ?. Sulphacetamide is sometimes available in a 10% and 30% solution. The 30% solution may initially be irritating, but this is usually followed by an analgesic effect.

Tetracyclines are also indicated for super-ficial eye infections caused by susceptible organisms. It is used for Trachoma with concurrent oral treatment and for chlamydial infections. It is however ineffective against pseudomonas. The only preparation readily available in South Africa contains both oxytetracyline and polymyxin B (Terramycin?). Some patients complain of stinging or burning of the eyes after tetracycline instillation, but it is usually well tolerated and seldom leads to sensitisation.

Aminoglycosides, such as Gentamycin (Garamycin Eye Drops?) and Tobramycin (Tobrex?) are highly effective in the treatment of most eye infections, but because of the risk of sensitisation it is recommended that their use be restricted to serious sight-threatening infections.

ADMINISTRATION OF OCULAR ANTIBIOTICS

Eye drops are easily instilled; rapidly effective and best used when the eyes are to remain uncovered. They need to be instilled frequently because of the rapid elimination from the conjunctival sac. The volume of the conjunctival sac is less than that of one drop, so it is wasteful to instil more than one drop at a time. If two or more different eye drops are required at the same time of day, the patient should wait for approximately 10 ? 15 minutes between instillation to prevent dilution and overflow. It is important that the patient does not squeeze the eye shut after administration of the drop, as this will eliminate the fluid from the conjunctival sac. If necessary the lid should be gently held open for 1 to 2 minutes after a drop has been administered.

Other combination antibiotic preparations available in South Africa include:

The general use of Neomycin is discouraged because of the risk of sensitivityreactions.

Eye ointments are easier to apply and are retained for a longer period in the conjunctival sac, resulting in a more sustained absorption. A common disadvantage of eye ointments is blurring of vision for 10 ? 15 minutes after application. If this is a problem the ointment should be used overnight or when the eye is to be covered with an eye patch.

Subconjunctival injection is a useful form of drug delivery, particularly in serious corneal and intraocular infections. The drug diffuses mainly through the cornea of the eye and higher intraocular concentrations may be achieved than with topical drops or ointments. The maximum volume of injected drug is usually restric-ted to 1ml.

Ophthalmic solutions are generally sterile, but once bottles are open there is always the risk of contamination. Whether in plastic or glass bottles, eye solutions should not remain in use for longer than four weeks after opening. Preservative free preparations should be kept refrigerated and discarded within 1 week after opening.

The following guidelines must be followed when administering eye drops or ointments:

If microbial contamination is pre-vented, preparations can be used for four weeks after opening and should then be discarded.

Eye drops or ointments should notbe administered to different patients from the same container, particularly if there is any indication of an eye infection.

It is important that the container does not touch the eyelashes or any other part of the eye since this may lead to contamination and possible reinfection.

Some practical hints

When bathing the eye, massage the corners of the eyes firmly with down-ward movements to press any matter from the tear ducts. Bathe the eye thoroughly using a solution of 0.5-tsp salt to 500ml warm water. For babies, cottonwool swabs can be dipped into the solution and used to wipe the eye clean.

Eyedrops should be administered with the patient sitting and looking upwards. Pull the lower lid down, drop the liquid in between the eyelid and eyeball and let the patient look down while the lower lid is still held firmly.

For the administration of eye ointment, pull the lower lid as explained above and let the patient look up. Squeeze about 1cm of ointment onto the inside of the lower lid. Let the patient close the eye while rolling the eyeball in all directions.

Eye bandages can be used to keep the eye closed and protected. These bandages should be oval in shape and about 0.5cm thick cottonwool with gauze on either side. They should be placed firmly on the eye to press the eyelid against the cornea and secured with adhesive tape from the forehead to the cheek at a 45? angle.

A warm compress, such as a warm facecloth or towel may be used to reduce pain.

Eye care is extremely important and with the appropriate pharmaceutical care many minor eye conditions need not progress to more serious problems. It is however important the patients are educated about eye infections, instructed in precise techniques for drug instillation and made aware of any possible adverse effects.

Posted on Wednesday, October 16 @ 16:32:26 SAST by E-Doc

Luxury Hotel In Zagreb, Zegren

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Esplanade Zagreb Hotel offers supreme luxury for the spirit and all the senses in the heart of this historic city, close to all its major sights and delights. The hotel, with its long and distinguished history of world-class hospitality, re-opened in 2004 after a complete renovation designed to flawlessly merge the best of 21st century comforts with the alluring appeal of Art Noveau architecture.

Superior Room

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News & Blog

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Astrocast, Astrocast

Best seen full screen.

This month we have some great solar system objects to look for. Mercury and Venusy appear in the southwestern sky for an hour or more after sunset through much of this month, along with the red planet Mars. Jupiter rises around 8:30 or so, and is high in the sky by late evening. If you try to find it, be sure to search out its moons with your binoculars or telescope. Saturn is an early morning object throughout January. On the 16th, just before dawn, it appears very close to the crescent Moon.

Every month is a great month to go out and explore the stars and planets starting a couple of hours after sunset. Carolyn Collins Petersen, is your guide to skygazing.

Now, don’t forget to bring along a pair of binoculars or a small telescope, and dress for the weather.

Starry skies are a vanishing treasure because light pollution is washing away our view of the cosmos. It not only threatens astronomy, it disrupts wildlife, and affects human health. The yellow glows over cities and towns — seen so clearly from space — are testament to the billions spent in wasted energy from lighting up the sky.

Watch at: http://www. youtube. com/embed/blX9bTOTnHk To help raise public awareness of some of the issues pertaining to light pollution, Loch Ness Productions in collaboration with the International Dark-Sky Association has created a 6.5-minute "public service announcement" called Losing the Dark. It introduces and illustrates some of the issues regarding light pollution, and suggests three simple actions people can take to help mitigate it.

Losing the Dark was initially created in fulldome video format for digital planetarium use. It also has been made as a conventional flat screen video, for use in classrooms, kiosks, museum theaters, and advocate multimedia presentations. Classic planetarium theaters without fulldome capability can show this version using their traditional video projectors.

Losing the Dark is a joint production of the International Dark-Sky Association and Loch Ness Productions.

Writer/narrator: Carolyn Collins Petersen

Audio/video production: Mark C. Petersen

Time-lapse photography and animation: Dome3D, Loch Ness Productions

Additional imagery: NASA, DigitalSky 2, Adler Planetarium, Gregory Panayotou, Gemini Observatory / AURA, Dan Nixon / Need-Less Campaign, Thomas O'Brien / tmophoto, Babak Tafreshi / TWAN

Special thanks: Dr. Connie Walker (NOAO) and the IDA Education committee

Astrocast. TV covers the International Symposium for Personal and Commercial Spaceflight 2010 (ISPCS) followed by the Spaceport America Runway Dedication. Members of the Commercial Spaceflight Industry talk with Kathleen Koch & Chuck Roberts about their organizations their goals and the future of the industry. Here are some of our featured guests.

Fresh water is pivotal to humans. We rely on it for food production, as energy resource and much more. Knowledge about the water cycle is crucial also for coastal communities and marine industry; just to mention a few more examples of how important chasing water is.

Learn how we use satellite altimetry to measure both sea surface height and water in other elements of the water cycle. Satellite altimetry veteran Dr. Ole Andersen from Danish National Space Center and pioneer Professor Philippa Berry from De Montfort University in the UK tells you both about the technique and how it is currently being used.

In this episode of The Astronomer's Universe we re-visit a region of space that has fascinated astronomers for decades: the Carinae Nebula and the soon-to-explode luminious blue variable star called Eta Carinae. This star, which is really a stellar pair, has been brightening and dimming, puffing out huge amounts of gas and dust, and giving astronomers new insight into the deaths of very massive stars. Learn the latest thinking about when this star might become a hypernova!

See our coverage of the historical Groundbreaking at Spaceport America on Astrocast. TV

Click for all Episode Archives

Survey - Tell us what you think of Astrocast. TV and how we can better serve your interests in Astronomy.

Our Blog Top Stories

Aciclovir - Anti Viral, Cycloviran

Common use Aciclovir is an antiviral drug, it is a synthetic ingredient with a similar molecular structure to purine nucleoside. Aciclovir is used to treat viral infections such as cold sores, to stop the growth of Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus (caused by chickenpox and shingles), Epstein Barr Virus (caused by glandular fever), and to a lesser extent Cytomegalovirus (CMV). It is also useful in preventing genital herpes and in preventing viral infections occurring in those with a lowered immune system. This medication may also help reduce the time when pain remains after the sores heal. In addition, in people with a weakened immune system, Aciclovir can decrease the risk of the virus spreading to other parts of the body and causing serious infections.

Dosage and direction

Take this medication by mouth with or without food, usually 2 to 5 times a day as directed by your doctor. Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take your medicine more often than directed. Take all of your medicine as directed even if you think your are better. If you are using the liquid form of this medication, shake the bottle well before each dose. Carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose. Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. In children, dosage is also based on weight.

You should talk with your healthcare provider prior to taking Aciclovir if you have kidney disease, including kidney failure (renal failure), any allergies, including allergies to food, dyes, or preservatives. Let your healthcare provider know if you are pregnant or thinking of becoming pregnant, breastfeeding. Make sure to tell your healthcare provider about all medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. The medication passes through breast milk. Therefore, if you are breastfeeding or plan to start, discuss this with your healthcare provider prior to taking the drug.

Aciclovir Injection is contraindicated for patients who develop hypersensitivity to Cycloviran or valaciclovir.

Possible side effects Side effects are potentially serious and you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible. These include, but are not limited to: allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue, chest pain, confusion, hallucinations, tremor, dark urine, increased sensitivity to the sun, redness, blistering, peeling or loosening of the skin (including inside the mouth), seizures, trouble passing urine or change in the amount of urine, unusual bleeding or bruising, or pinpoint red spots on the skin, unusually weak or tired, yellowing of the eyes or skin. Side effects that usually do not require medical attention: diarrhea, fever, headache, nausea, vomiting stomach upset. In this way report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome.

Drug interactions There are negative interactions that can occur when Aciclovir is combined with any of the drugs listed above. Phenytoin (Fosphenytoin) and Aciclovir: it may decrease the level of phenytoin in your blood, perhaps making it less effective. Your healthcare provider may need to measure the level of phenytoin in your blood (using a blood test) and adjust your dose as necessary. Probenecid can increase the level of Aciclovir in your blood, increasing your risk of acyclovir side effects. Your healthcare provider may need to decrease your acyclovir dosage to prevent this interaction from occurring. Acyclovir can increase the level of Tenofovir in your blood, potentially increasing your risk of side effects. Your healthcare provider may need to lower your tenofovir dosage to prevent drug interactions.

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and take the medicine the next regularly scheduled time. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine. Overdose symptoms may include seizure (convulsions), hallucinations, and urinating less than usual or not at all.

Store at controlled room temperature of 15°C to 25°C (59°F to 77°F). Keep this medicine out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Disclaimer We provide only general information about medications which does not cover all directions, possible drug integrations, or precautions. Information on the site cannot be used for self-treatment and self-diagnosis. Any specific instructions for a particular patient should be agreed with your health care adviser or doctor in charge of the case. We disclaim reliability of this information and mistakes it could contain. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other indirect damage as a result of any use of the information on this site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

Carbonato De Calcio, Que Es Y Para Que Sirve, Carbonato Calcico

El carbonato calcico es el principal componente de la piedra caliza, muy utilizada – entre otras cosas - para neutralizar la acidez del suelo y proporcionar calcio para nutrir a las plantas.

?Que beneficios nos aporta la aplicacion de la piedra caliza?

Esta piedra caliza se denomina cal agricola y su principal beneficio es que consigue elevar el pH de los suelos acidos favoreciendo que se reduzca la concentracion de aluminio de estos. Aquellos suelos con el pH superior a 7 son suelos alcalinos mientras que los que tienen un pH inferior a 7 son suelos acidos. Pero ademas reducir la acidez de los suelos y elevar su pH, el agregado de cal nos aporta otros beneficios secundarios:

Una mayor disponibilidad de fosforo .

Mejor fijacion de nitrogeno .

Aumenta la nitrificacion y mineralizacion .

Las plantas crecen con un sistema radicular mas saludable .

La cantidad de cal agricola adecuada que se debe usar la determina un laboratorio. Una vez conocida la cantidad se distribuye por la tierra cultivada mezclandola en los sembrados en la zona de las raices.

El carbonato calcico artificial se obtiene tratando una disolucion de cloruro calcico puro con una disolucion acuosa de CaCo3, o de este adicionada de amoniaco hasta que la mezcla tenga reaccion alcalina o hasta que la precipitacion sea completa. Para precipitar la disolucion de cloruro calcico, preparada con 100 partes de marmol . se requieren 80 partes de CaCo3 en disolucion muy cargada de de amoniaco.

Si se verifica la precipitacion del frio . se forma al principio un precipitado voluminoso de CaCO3 amorfo, que al cabo de algun tiempo se vuelve denso y cristalino, tomando la forma de espato calizo .

Cuando se mezclan la solucion de cloruro calcio y de CaCo3 hirviendo, se precipita en forma de aragonito y esta forma se convierte en espato calizo cuando el precipitado esta mucho tiempo en contacto del liquido.

El precipitado obtenido de una u otra forma, es preferible que se haya preparado en frio y se haya vuelto poco a poco granujiento - cristalino, se lava repetidas veces por decantacion con agua comun y finalmente se recoge en un filtro o colador y se la lava con agua destilada hasta que el liquido filtrado acidulado con anadido nitrico no de la reaccion de cloruro con el nitrato de plata, entonces se deja escurrir y se deseca.

El CaCO3 asi preparado es un polvo blanco, cristalino. que examinado al microscopio se presenta con romboedros (forma del espato calizo) o en prismas rombico ( forma del aragonito), segun la manera de prepararlo.

En esta segunda parte, explicaremos en que otras formas podemos encontrar el CoCa3 en la naturaleza.

Tanto en las tierras de labor como en las aguas naturales en mayor o menor cantidad. En estas ultimas esta disuelto en forma de bicarbonato calcico . por el acido carbonico. Esta reaccion es importante en la erosion de las rocas carbonaticas, formando cavernas y generando agua dura en esas regiones ( tobas calizas, pisolitas, estalagmitas, estalactitas, joolitas, incrustraciones, concreciones calcareas, etc .)

Cuando contiene una gran cantidad de arcilla se llama Marga . La meteorizacion de las margas da lugar a fenomenos interesantes que han sido estudiados desde hace mucho tiempo. (wikipedia )

En el reino vegetal encontramos el Carbonato calcico en las cenizas de las plantas .

En el reino animal se encuentra muy esparcido, puesto que es uno de los componente de los huevos y la materia principal de las cascaras de los huevos . de las conchas de los caracoles . de los corales . etc.

Gunstig Kaufen Blood Pressure - Amlomal (Brand Name Norvasc) Ohne Rezept Sicher Kaufen - Onlinetable

Blood Pressure - Amlomal (Brand name: norvasc)

Allgemeine Anwendung dieses Medikament gehört zur Gruppe der Kalziumantagonisten. Norvasc blockiert selektiv L-Typ Kanäle (eine der sechs Arten von Kanälen in Geweben) die sich in einer Gefäßwand, Myocard und insbesondere in den Zellen der Durchführungs - und kontraktilen Systemen des Herzmuskels befinden. Norvasc blockiert Übertragung von ca + Ions durch die Membrane und verringert Gefäßetonus und arteriellen Druck. Das Medikament wird zur Behandlung von Bluthochdruck, ischämische Herzkrankheit, Angina verwendet.

Dosierung und Anleitung nehmen Sie dieses Medikament nicht, wenn es Ihnen nicht vorgeschrieben wurde. Befolgen Sie alle Anweisungen von Ihrem Arzt. Es ist möglich, Norvasc mit oder ohne Nahrung zu nehmen. Da es in der Leber metabolisiert wird, sollen Patienten mit Leberversagen vorsichtig verwenden.

vermeiden Sie Alkohol. Bevor Sie Norvasc nehmen, informieren Sie Ihren Arzt, wenn Sie Herzinsuffizienz oder Lebererkrankung haben.

Kontraindikationen Individuale Überempfindlichkeit, arterielle Hypotonie, kardiogener Schock, Schwangerschaft, Stillen. Vorsicht ist nötig, wenn Norvasc bei Patienten mit chronischer Herzinsuffizienz, Diabetes, Lipid-Stoffwechsel-Erkrankungen, Leberversagen und Personen jünger 18 Jahre verabreicht wird.

Mögliche Nebeneffekt die möglichst oft auftretenden Nebenwirkungen sind Ödem der unteren Gliedmaßen und Kopfschmerzen. Setzen Sie mit Ihrem Arzt in Verbindung, wenn sie Schwellungen in den Händen, Knöchel oder Füßen fühlen, Schmerzen in der Brust, langsamen, schnellen oder stampfenden Herzschlag, leichte Blutergüsse oder Blutungen, ungewöhnliche Schwäche, Taubheitsgefühl, Brennen, Schmerzen oder prickelnde Gefühl, Gelbsucht haben. Wechselwirkungen Medikamente, die

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Reviderm, Reviderm

Microdermabrasion with the REVIDERM Skin Peeler

Areas of application

Controlled Microdermabrasion with the REVIDERM Skin Peeler is a modern technique for treating the skin gently and successfully.

The range of applications is very broad, because the REVIDERM Skin Peeler can quickly and safely repair many different problems related to the biological regeneration of the skin.

Microdermabrasion is ideally suited to treating the following indications:

Horny Layers (Hyperkeratosis)

Before any active agent and general skin regeneration treatment.

Atrophic and aging skin

UV Light and sun damaged skin

Pigmentation disorders and age spots

Skin impurities and acne scars

Body treatments for striae, stretch marks and cellulite

Scars of every type on the face and body

Methods

The success of controlled Microdermabrasion lies within the functionality of the REVIDERM Skin Peeler. Through the flow of corundum peeling crystals, the upper skin layer is removed in a controlled, gentle way.

The targeted abrasion of the upper skin layer (stratum corneum), leads to increased growth in young functional skin cells in the basal cell layer. These cells migrate to the upper layers, gradually replacing the damaged tissue. Regeneration of the skin takes place from within.

The REVIDERM Skin Peeler is safe and simple in application. The following advantages are of specific significance for its application in the salon:

The Skin Peeler can be used by aestheticians.

The treatment is completely painless.

The customer is not restricted in normal daily activities (no redness)

The treatment is gentle and pleasant.

Results are immediately visible and improve with every treatment.

Due to the gentle treatment process, the biologically-controlled renewal process of the skin is greatly increased.

Treatments can be matched exactly to the special needs of the skin.

The length and frequency of treatments can be matched to individual requirements.

Mode of Operation

The REVIDERM Skin Peeler offers a sophisticated form of Microdermabrasion. It is a special machine with a vacuum device and a hand piece, which has an exchangeable treatment tip at the end. A slight suction is exerted on the part of the skin being treated, and at the same time a controlled flow of corundum crystals carries out the abrasion. The crystals are then sucked into the hand piece along with the dead skin cells and are then collected in the used crystal container.

A control mechanism allows the vacuum pressure to be adjusted for the required mode of operation and depth of abrasion, (Controlled Microdermabrasion). After the adjustment of the vacuum pressure for the abrasion, according to therapeutic aim, the Skin Peeler ensures a gentle and controlled Microdermabrasion.

With controlled Microdermabrasion, possible wounding is avoided, which can be caused by the traditional ‘rotating head’ abrasion technique. Instead the skin is gently abraded with a chosen strength and depth by the means of fine crystals.

According to clinical studies in the USA and Italy, the following effects were established after the implementation of several controlled Microdermabrasion treatments:

Stimulation of cell renewal in the epidermis.

Significant increase in the thickness of the epidermis and the dermis.

Increase in local blood circulation of the skin.

Significant increase in the absorption of externally applied active agents.

This is the result of the exfoliation (abrasion) of the horny layer and is therefore the best pre-conditions for the effective penetration of active agents deep into the skin.

Microdermabrasion with the REVIDERM Skin Peeler

Areas of application

Controlled Microdermabrasion with the REVIDERM Skin Peeler is a modern technique for treating the skin gently and successfully.

The range of applications is very broad, because the REVIDERM Skin Peeler can quickly and safely repair many different problems related to the biological regeneration of the skin.

Microdermabrasion is ideally suited to treating the following indications:

Horny Layers (Hyperkeratosis)

Before any active agent and general skin regeneration treatment.

Atrophic and aging skin

UV Light and sun damaged skin

Pigmentation disorders and age spots

Skin impurities and acne scars

Body treatments for striae, stretch marks and cellulite

Scars of every type on the face and body

Methods

The success of controlled Microdermabrasion lies within the functionality of the REVIDERM Skin Peeler. Through the flow of corundum peeling crystals, the upper skin layer is removed in a controlled, gentle way.

The targeted abrasion of the upper skin layer (stratum corneum), leads to increased growth in young functional skin cells in the basal cell layer. These cells migrate to the upper layers, gradually replacing the damaged tissue. Regeneration of the skin takes place from within.

The REVIDERM Skin Peeler is safe and simple in application. The following advantages are of specific significance for its application in the salon:

The Skin Peeler can be used by aestheticians.

The treatment is completely painless.

The customer is not restricted in normal daily activities (no redness)

The treatment is gentle and pleasant.

Results are immediately visible and improve with every treatment.

Due to the gentle treatment process, the biologically-controlled renewal process of the skin is greatly increased.

Treatments can be matched exactly to the special needs of the skin.

The length and frequency of treatments can be matched to individual requirements.

Mode of Operation

The REVIDERM Skin Peeler offers a sophisticated form of Microdermabrasion. It is a special machine with a vacuum device and a hand piece, which has an exchangeable treatment tip at the end. A slight suction is exerted on the part of the skin being treated, and at the same time a controlled flow of corundum crystals carries out the abrasion. The crystals are then sucked into the hand piece along with the dead skin cells and are then collected in the used crystal container.

A control mechanism allows the vacuum pressure to be adjusted for the required mode of operation and depth of abrasion, (Controlled Microdermabrasion). After the adjustment of the vacuum pressure for the abrasion, according to therapeutic aim, the Skin Peeler ensures a gentle and controlled Microdermabrasion.

With controlled Microdermabrasion, possible wounding is avoided, which can be caused by the traditional ‘rotating head’ abrasion technique. Instead the skin is gently abraded with a chosen strength and depth by the means of fine crystals.

According to clinical studies in the USA and Italy, the following effects were established after the implementation of several controlled Microdermabrasion treatments:

Stimulation of cell renewal in the epidermis.

Significant increase in the thickness of the epidermis and the dermis.

Increase in local blood circulation of the skin.

Significant increase in the absorption of externally applied active agents.

This is the result of the exfoliation (abrasion) of the horny layer and is therefore the best pre-conditions for the effective penetration of active agents deep into the skin.

Buy Woman S Health - Klonafenac (Brand Name Diclofenac) Online - Order Diclofenac - Purchase Woman S

Diclofenac is used to treat pain or inflammation caused by arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis. Diclofenac may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.

Use Diclofenac as directed by your doctor.

Take Diclofenac by mouth with or without food. Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Diclofenac.

Drug Class and Mechanism

Diclofenac is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Diclofenac works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

If you miss a dose of Diclofenac, use it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not use 2 doses at once.

Store Diclofenac at room temperature between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C) in a tightly closed container. Brief periods at temperatures of 59 to 86 degrees F (15 to 30 degrees C) are permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Diclofenac out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do not use Diclofenac if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Diclofenac; you have had a severe allergic reaction (e. g. severe rash, hives, breathing difficulties, dizziness) to another NSAID (e. g. ibuprofen, naproxen, celecoxib) or aspirin. Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Important : Diclofenac may cause dizziness or blurred vision. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Diclofenac with caution. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it. Before you start any new medicine, check the label to see if it has Klonafenac or another nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) medicine in it too. If it does or if you are not sure, check with your doctor or pharmacist. Diclofenac should not be used in children; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Diclofenac while you are pregnant. It is not known if Diclofenac is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while using Diclofenac.

Possible Side Effects

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

burning or stinging; discharge; eye redness, irritation, or itching. Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); blurred or distorted vision; eye infection; eyelid swelling or redness; sensitivity to glare or light.

Diclofenac is to be used only by the patient for whom it is prescribed. Do not share it with other people. If your symptoms do not improve or if they become worse, check with your doctor.

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Metformin is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other anti-diabetic medicines.

Use Metformin as directed by your doctor.

Take Metformin by mouth with food. Take Metformin on a regular schedule to get the most benefit from it. Taking Metformin at the same time each day will help you remember to take it. Continue taking Metformin even if you feel good. Do not miss any doses. Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about its usage.

Drug Class and Mechanism

Metformin is a biguanide antidiabetic. It works by decreasing the amount of sugar that the liver produces and the intestines absorb. It also helps to make your body more sensitive to the insulin that you naturally produce.

If you miss a dose of Metformin and are using it regularly, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Store Metformin between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Metformin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do not use Metformin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Metformin; you have congestive heart failure that is treated by medicine; you have a severe infection, low blood oxygen levels, kidney or liver problems, high blood ketone or acid levels (e. g. diabetic ketoacidosis), or severe dehydration; you have had a stroke or a recent heart attack, or you are in shock; you are 80 years old or older and have not had a kidney function test; you will be having surgery or certain lab procedures. Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Important : Dizziness may occur while you are taking Metformin. This effect may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Metformin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it. Follow the diet and exercise program given to you by your health care provider. Do not drink large amounts of alcohol while you use Metformin. Talk to your doctor or health care provider before you drink alcohol while you use Metformin. Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Metformin before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery. Be careful not to become dehydrated, especially during hot weather or while you are being active. Dehydration may increase the risk of Metformin 's side effects. Carry an ID card at all times that says you have diabetes. Check your blood sugar levels as directed by your doctor. If they are often higher or lower than they should be and you take Metformin exactly as prescribed, tell your doctor. This medicine does not usually lower your blood sugar levels. Low blood sugar may be more likely to occur if you skip a meal, exercise heavily, or drink alcohol. It may also be more likely if you take Metformin along with certain medicines for diabetes (e. g. sulfonylureas, insulin). It is a good idea to carry a reliable source of glucose (e. g. tablets or gel) to treat low blood sugar. If this is not available, you should eat or drink a quick source of sugar like table sugar, honey, candy, orange juice, or non-diet soda. This will raise your blood sugar level quickly. Tell your doctor right away if this happens. To prevent low blood sugar, eat meals at the same time each day and do not skip meals. Fever, infection, injury, or surgery may increase your risk for high or low blood sugar levels. If any of these occur, check your blood sugar closely and tell your doctor right away. Metformin may commonly cause stomach upset, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea at the beginning of treatment. If you develop unusual or unexpected stomach problems, or if you develop stomach problems later during treatment, contact your doctor at once. This may be a sign of lactic acidosis. Lab tests, including kidney function, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and blood counts, may be performed while you use Metformin. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments. Use Metformin with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects. Low blood sugar levels may also be more difficult to recognize in the elderly. Metformin should not be used in children younger than 10 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Metformin while you are pregnant. It is not known if Metformin is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Metformin.

Possible Side Effects

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Diarrhea; gas; headache; indigestion; nausea; stomach upset; temporary metallic taste; vomiting. Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); chest pain or discomfort; dizziness or lightheadedness; fast or difficult breathing; feeling of being unusually cold; fever, chills, or persistent sore throat; general feeling of being unwell; muscle pain or weakness; slow or irregular heartbeat; unusual drowsiness; unusual or persistent stomach pain or discomfort; unusual tiredness or weakness.

If you have any questions about Hydrochlorothiazide, please talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other health care provider. Metformin is to be used only by the patient for whom it is prescribed. Do not share it with other people.

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Pet insurance coverage offered and administered by Pets Best Insurance Services, LLC is underwritten by Independence American Insurance Company, a Delaware insurance company.

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**Between 7/1/15 and 9/30/15, the average estimated savings off MSRP presented by TrueCar Certified Dealers to users of TrueCar powered websites, based on users who configured virtual vehicles and who TrueCar identified as purchasing a new vehicle of the same make and model listed on the certificate from a Certified Dealer as of 10/31/2015, was $3,279. Your actual savings may vary based on multiple factors including the vehicle you select, region, dealer, and applicable vehicle specific manufacturer incentives which are subject to change. The Farmers Car Shopping Service website is owned and operated by TrueCar, which is not affiliated with any of the companies comprising the Farmers Insurance Group of Companies.

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Optimum Service

Optimum Service

Service Protection

Why should you subscribe to Service Protection?

Service Protection covers you from any unexpected service fees not covered within our guidelines.

In the event a problem exists with your home wiring, jacks or connectors, plan subscribers will not be charged the service fee associated with the technician's home visit to resolve the issue. Subscribers to the plan will also get priority status in the call queue when calling Optimum Support.

Sign up for Service Protection now for only $4.99 per month. Remember, the cost of just one in-home visit could pay for a whole year's worth of coverage.

Premier Protection & Support

As a subscriber to Premier Protection & Support, you'll get fast, unlimited help with setup, support and education for all your connected devices in your home. It's like having your own virtual help desk.

Premier Protection & Support also includes device protection. With device protection, you could save on repairs or replacement devices as a result of any malfunctions that are not associated with accidental damage.

For just $19.99 per month, you could enjoy ultimate peace of mind knowing Optimum has you covered.

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Premier Protection & Support

Technology can get overwhelming at times. That’s why we’re introducing Premier Protection & Support.

Disclaimer

Service Protection Plan Terms and Conditions Effective June 22, 2015

CSC Holdings, LLC on behalf of itself and its affiliates and subsidiaries authorized to provide the services set forth herein (collectively, "Cablevision") is pleased to provide its Service Protection Plan (“Plan”) to you in accordance with these terms and conditions, which incorporate and include the General Terms and Conditions of Service, Agreement for Optimum TV, Agreement for Optimum Online and Agreement for Optimum Voice, the Cablevision Customer Privacy Notice, as applicable, and as such may be updated from time to time (collectively, the "Terms of Service"). In the event of any conflict between these Terms and Conditions below and the Terms of Service, the Terms of Service shall control.

1. Description . The Service Protection Plan (“Plan”) is an optional monthly plan available to current Optimum residential customers which covers certain customer support calls and service visits related to Optimum TV, Optimum Online, and/or Optimum Voice services as follows:

a. The Plan covers service visits to repair certain inside wiring in connection with the delivery of the applicable Optimum TV, Optimum Online, and/or Optimum side of the Demarcation Point. Under this Plan, inside wiring shall be defined as cables, connectors, jacks, and other components necessary to receive the applicable Optimum service, except as limited in Section 2 of this Terms of Service. Under this Plan, the Demarcation Point begins 12 inches outside of your home and extends inside to the individual outlets and extensions. For apartments, condominiums, and/or other group facilities, the demarcation point is the outlet or jack inside the unit.

b. The Plan offers priority positioning in the queue to speak with a live representative for certain customer support calls after Subscriber has exhausted self-service options.

c. The Plan also covers service visits in which a subscriber calls customer support with an issue relating to the use of Optimum products or services and Cablevision subsequently determines that an in-home service visit is necessary to resolve issues related to inside wiring, connectors and other customer equipment (e. g. laptops, tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, etc.) necessary for the operation of Optimum products and services. For example, the Plan would cover service visits to connect mobile WiFi devices, address incorrect equipment settings or connections or program remote controls. The cost of the visit is covered even if it is determined that the issue is isolated to customer-owned or provided (as opposed to Cablevision-provided) equipment.

Cablevision will perform all services under the Plan in accordance with industry standards.

2. Restrictions and Exclusions . The Plan does not cover:

a. repair of wire concealed within a wall or other inaccessible structure, i. e. wire that is wall fished;

b. repair of non-Optimum equipment;

c. installation or configuration of non-Optimum equipment, with the exception of a customer-owned router;

d. repair of complex or custom wiring such as smart panels and long-distance HDMI;

e. installation, removal, relocation of or change of Optimum services;

f. service visits made at Subscriber request during a known outage;

g. service visits made at Subscriber request without first allowing a customer service representative to troubleshoot the service issue over the phone;

h. repair or replacement of Ethernet/Cat5 cable or fittings, except as required to connect the Optimum Router to the cable modem and/or Subscriber computer; or

i. any damage or destruction caused by fire, flood, earthquake, Acts of God, vandalism, gross negligence or willful damage.

3. Fees and Cancellation Policy . The optional Plan is $4.99 per month and will be billed monthly in advance for as long as the subscriber remains in the plan. Subscribers may cancel the Plan at any time by calling (888) 705-7171 or contacting Cablevision at: 1111 Stewart Avenue, Bethpage, NY 11714, Attn: Service Protection Plan. If a subscriber has an eligible service visit within the first 90 days of signing up for the Plan and subsequently cancels during that 90 day period, the subscriber may be responsible for a minimum payment of $14.97 (with any monthly payments previously made applied towards such minimum). Additional fees may apply for work performed that is not covered by the Plan.

4. Taxes and Fees . Subscriber agrees to pay any applicable local, state or federal taxes and/or fees imposed or levied on or with respect to the Plan.

5. Access to Subscriber Premises . Subscriber authorizes Cablevision and its employees, agents, contractors and representatives to access and otherwise enter the Subscriber's premises to install, inspect, maintain and/or make eligible, covered repair(s) and, upon the termination of Service, to remove the same from the premises. If Subscriber is not the owner of the property where Cablevision will perform service visits, Subscriber hereby warrants and represents that Subscriber has obtained all necessary permissions from the owner of the property and Subscriber will indemnify Cablevision from any liability arising from a breach of the representation and warranty.

6. Limitation of Liability: Cablevision shall not be liable for any damages (including indirect, incidental, punitive, or consequential damages of any kind) arising from services performed under the Plan.

7. Amendment: Cablevision may, in its sole discretion, change, modify, add or remove portions of this Plan at any time. Cablevision may notify Subscriber of any such changes to this Plan by posting notice of such changes on the Optimum website or sending notice via e-mail or postal mail. The Subscriber's continued participation in the Plan following notice of such change, modification or amendment shall be deemed to be the Subscriber's acceptance of any such modification. If Subscriber does not agree to any modification of this Plan, Subscriber must cancel the Plan in accordance to Paragraph 3.

Premier Technical Support Terms and Conditions These terms contain a binding arbitration agreement that affects your rights, including the waiver of class actions and jury trials. The agreement also contains provisions for opting out of arbitration. Please review it carefully. CSC Holdings, LLC on behalf of itself and its affiliates and subsidiaries authorized to provide the services set forth herein (collectively, “Cablevision”) is pleased to provide its Premier Technical Support (“PTS”) to You in accordance with these terms and conditions, which incorporate and include the General Terms and Conditions of Service, Agreement for Optimum TV, Agreement for Optimum Online and Agreement for Optimum Voice, the Cablevision Customer Privacy Notice, as applicable, and as such may be updated from time to time (collectively, the “Terms of Service”). In the event of any conflict between these Terms and Conditions below and the Terms of Service, the Terms of Service shall control.

Subscriber's use of the Premier Technical Support shall be deemed acknowledgment that Subscriber has read and agreed to these terms of service. Any Subscriber who does not agree to be bound by these terms should immediately stop their use of the Premier Technical Support and notify the Cablevision Customer Service Department to terminate the account. This is a legal document.

The Premier Technical Support Plan is an optional monthly plan available to current residential Optimum customers for technical support services for devices within your immediate household that can connect to your wireless network.

1. Definitions. In the TOS: (a) “Cablevision,” “We,” “Us” and “Our” means CSC Holdings, LLC and its parents, subsidiaries, branches, affiliates, third-party providers, agents, contractors, employees, successors and assigns; (b) “Subscriber,” “You” and “Your” mean an individual who accesses or uses PTS, as well as any person or entity represented by that individual.

2. Supported Devices. The Premier Technical Support Services (the “Services”) are available for all the devices that can connect to your wireless network, with the exception of the equipment provided and supported by Cablevision (“Supported Devices”).

3. Scope of the Services. The Services only include (a) technical support for the Supported Devices and the operating systems and the operating systems and software applications either thereon or intended to be used thereon; and (b) technical support for the use of the Supported Devices with other devices and services manufactured to be compatible with the Supported Devices or intended to be connected thereto. The Services do not include, among other things, (a) assistance with third-party software or services that are not related to Your Supported Devices; (b) diagnostic support not related to Your Supported Devices; (c) modification of Original Equipment Manufacturer (“OEM”) software; (d) installation of third-party software or OEM drivers not supported by Your Supported Devices; (e) installation of non-sanctioned applications; or (f) data migration from device to device.

4. Commercially Reasonable Efforts. We will use commercially reasonable efforts to provide you with PTS. This means that if we are unable to resolve the issue related to your supported device after making commercially reasonable efforts, we have the right and sole discretion to refuse to take further efforts to do so. Additionally, in some instances, we may have limited information from vendors, manufacturers, and developers, and We may not have the ability to obtain the proprietary or other information required to resolve Your issue. Some technical problems that You encounter when using Your Supported Device may be the result of software or hardware errors not yet resolved by the vendors, manufacturers or developers of that software or hardware, in which case We may not be able to resolve Your issue.

5. Representations and Authorizations. When seeking service, you represent that You are the Named Account Holder or an authorized user on the account, as well as any software on it or any device connected to Your Supported Device. When seeking service, You (a) expressly consent to technical support personnel remotely accessing Your Supported Device and the data thereon through use of software or other means; and (b) authorize Us to effect changes to Your Supported Device, to the extent necessary and acknowledge and agree that such changes may be permanent and irreversible.

6. Remote Access. To receive PTS, You may be required to download and/or run certain software applications (“Software”) on Your Supported Device and/or on any device connected to or used in connection with Your Supported Device. The Software may include remote access tools that allow us to remotely access Your Supported Device and any device connected thereto, as well as the contents thereon. You agree that any remote access of Your Supported Device in connection with providing the Services may be recorded for quality control purposes, including video capture of the remote access session. You also agree to comply with the terms and conditions applicable to the Software and, in the event of a conflict between those terms and conditions and these Terms and Conditions, the Software-specific terms and conditions control, but only with regard to the Software itself. You are prohibited from and agree not to alter or copy the Software or any other materials provided to you as a result of your use of PTS.

7. Back-up. It is your responsibility to back-up the software and data that is stored on Your Supported Device or devices connected to or used in connection with Your Supported Device, and we are not responsible for any loss, alteration, or corruption of any software or data. We may decline to provide service to you if we determine that You have not taken appropriate back-up measures.

8. Privacy Policy & Passwords. Our Privacy Notice is available here [Hyperlinked to: https://www. optimum. net/pages/PrivacyExisting. html] and explains our policies with respect to the collection, use and disclosure of information related to or derived from your use of PTS. Please read it carefully and completely. It is incorporated by reference into these Terms and Conditions, and by using PTS, You consent to the collection, use and disclosure of your information as set forth in that Notice. If you know or suspect that the passwords associated with or stored on Your Supported Device have been available to or accessed by anyone as a result of your use of PTS, You should immediately change or reset those passwords.

9. Costs and Data Usage Charges. In some circumstances, you may need to purchase additional equipment or software to receive the full benefit of PTS, and you may incur data usage charges when using PTS. In those circumstances, you are fully and solely responsible for the cost of any such equipment or software and the payment of any such charges.

10. Disclaimer of Warranties and Limitation of Liability. a. Subscriber expressly agrees that the use of PTS Service, as well as the purchase, download, or use of any third-party service or product provided by or accessed through the Service, is at Subscriber's sole risk and Subscriber acknowledges that this Service and these materials are provided "as is" and "as available" for Subscriber's use, without warranties of any kind, whether express or implied, including, without limitation the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. Neither Cablevision nor any third-party provider of services or products, makes any representations or warranties with respect to any service offered through PTS, and Cablevision shall not be party to nor responsible for monitoring any transaction between Subscriber and other third-party providers of products or services outside the terms of these Terms and Conditions.

b. Unless otherwise specifically provided in these Term and Conditions, Cablevision and any of its third-party providers will not be liable to the Subscriber or to any third party for:

i. any direct, indirect, incidental, special, punitive or consequential losses or damages, including loss of profits, loss of earnings, loss of business opportunities, failure to transmit or receive any data, loss, misuse or disclosure of data or confidential information, loss of privacy, corruption or loss of data, failure to receive or backup your data (or archived data), and personal injuries (including death), resulting directly or indirectly out of, or otherwise arising in connection with the use of PTS Services or provided third party services by the Subscriber or any other use of the Services including without limitation, any damage resulting from or arising out of the Subscriber's reliance on or use of the PTS Services, or the mistakes, omissions, interruptions, deletion of files, errors, defects, delays in operation, transmission, or any failure of the PTS Services; and

ii. any losses, claims, damages, expenses, liabilities or costs (including legal fees) resulting directly or indirectly out of, or otherwise arising in connection with, any allegation, claim, suit or other proceeding based upon a contention that the use of the PTS Services by the Subscriber or a third party infringes the copyright, patent, trade - mark, trade secret, confidentiality, privacy, or other industrial or intellectual property rights or contractual rights of any third party. This limitation applies to the acts, omissions, negligence and gross negligence of Cablevision, its officers, employees, agents, contractors, third-party providers, or representatives which, but for this provision, would give rise to a cause of action against Cablevision in contract, tort or any other legal doctrine.

11. Arbitration . Except as noted below under "Excepted Claims," any and all disputes arising between You and Cablevision, including its respective parents, subsidiaries, affiliates, officers, directors, employees, agents, predecessors, third-party providers, and successors, shall be resolved by binding arbitration on an individual basis in accordance with this Arbitration Provision.

Resolving your dispute with Cablevision through arbitration means You will have a fair hearing before a neutral arbitrator instead of in a court before a judge or jury. YOU AGREE THAT BY ENTERING INTO THIS AGREEMENT, YOU AND CABLEVISION EACH WAIVE THE RIGHT TO A TRIAL BY JURY AND THE RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN A CLASS, REPRESENTATIVE, OR PRIVATE ATTORNEY GENERAL ACTION.

IF YOU DO NOT WISH TO BE BOUND BY THIS ARBITRATION PROVISION, YOU MUST NOTIFY CABLEVISION IN WRITING WITHIN 30 DAYS OF THE DATE YOU SIGNED UP FOR THE SERVICES BY EMAILING US AT NOARBITRATION@CABLEVISION. COM OR BY MAIL TO CABLEVISION RESEARCH & SUPPORT, 200 JERICHO QUADRANGLE, JERICHO, NY 11753 ATTN. ARBITRATION. YOUR WRITTEN NOTIFICATION TO CABLEVISION MUST INCLUDE YOUR NAME, ADDRESS, AND CABLEVISION ACCOUNT NUMBER AS WELL AS A CLEAR STATEMENT THAT YOU DO NOT WISH TO RESOLVE DISPUTES WITH CABLEVISION THROUGH ARBITRATION. YOUR DECISION TO OPT OUT OF THIS ARBITRATION PROVISION WILL HAVE NO ADVERSE EFFECT ON YOUR RELATIONSHIP WITH CABLEVISION OR THE DELIVERY OF CABLEVISION SERVICES TO YOU. OPTING OUT OF THIS ARBITRATION PROVISION HAS NO EFFECT ON ANY PREVIOUS, OTHER, OR FUTURE ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS THAT YOU MAY HAVE WITH CABLEVISION.

Because the Service(s) provided to You involves interstate commerce, the Federal Arbitration Act ("FAA"), not state arbitration law, shall govern the arbitrability of all disputes under this Arbitration Provision. Any state statutes pertaining to arbitration shall not be applicable. You and Cablevision agree that applicable state law or federal law shall apply to and govern, as appropriate, the substance of all claims or causes of action, remedies, and damages arising between You and Cablevision.

The arbitration will be administered by the American Arbitration Association ("AAA"), 1101 Laurel Oak Road, Suite 100, Voorhees, NJ 08043, under the AAA's Commercial Arbitration Rules and Supplementary Procedures for Consumer Related Disputes, as modified by this Arbitration Provision. You may obtain copies of those rules from the AAA at www. adr. org or by calling 1- 800-778-7879. If the AAA will not enforce this Arbitration Provision as written, it cannot serve as the arbitration organization to resolve Your dispute. If this situation arises, or if the AAA for any reason cannot serve as the arbitration organization, the parties shall agree on a substitute arbitration organization or ad hoc arbitration, which will enforce this Arbitration Provision as to the dispute. If the parties are unable to agree, the parties shall mutually petition a court of appropriate jurisdiction to appoint an arbitration organization or ad hoc arbitrator that will enforce this Arbitration Provision as written. If there is a conflict between this Arbitration Provision and the AAA rules, this Arbitration Provision shall govern.

A single arbitrator will resolve the dispute between You and Cablevision. Participation in arbitration may result in limited discovery. The arbitrator will honor claims of privilege recognized by law and will take reasonable steps to protect confidential or proprietary information, including subscriber personally identifiable information. All issues are for the arbitrator to decide, except that issues relating to arbitrability, the scope or enforceability of this Arbitration Provision, or the interpretation of its prohibitions of class, representative, and private attorney general proceedings and non-individualized relief shall be for a court of competent jurisdiction to decide. The Arbitrator is limited and bound by terms of this Arbitration Provision. Although the arbitrator shall be bound by rulings in prior arbitrations involving the same customer to the extent required by applicable law, the arbitrator shall not be bound by rulings in other arbitrations involving different customers. The arbitrator will make any award in writing but need not provide a statement of reasons unless requested by a party. An award rendered by the arbitrator may be entered in any court having jurisdiction over the parties for purposes of enforcement.

Unless the parties agree otherwise, any arbitration hearings will take place in a location convenient to you in the area where you receive the Service(s). If the amount in dispute is less than $50,000, Cablevision agrees that you may choose whether the arbitration is conducted solely on the basis of documents submitted to the arbitrator, by a telephonic hearing, or by an in-person hearing as established by AAA rules.

If the amount in dispute exceeds $75,000 or the claim seeks any form of injunctive relief, either party may appeal the award to a three-arbitrator panel administered by AAA by a written notice of appeal within thirty (30) days from the date of entry of the written arbitration award. An award of injunctive relief shall be stayed during any such appeal. The members of the three-arbitrator panel will be selected according to AAA rules. The three-arbitrator panel will issue its decision within one hundred and twenty (120) days of the date of the appealing party's notice of appeal. The decision of the three-arbitrator panel shall be final and binding, subject to any right of judicial review that exists under the FAA.

You agree that if You fail to notify Cablevision in writing within one (1) year of the date of the occurrence of the event or facts giving rise to a dispute, then to the fullest extent permitted by law, You waive the right to pursue, in any forum, including arbitration or court, a claim based upon such event, facts or dispute.

Cablevision will pay all arbitration filing, administrative, and arbitrator fees for arbitrations that it commences. If You commence an arbitration, You will be responsible for paying a portion of arbitration fees as follows: If You are seeking relief valued at up to $1,000, Your share of such fees shall be capped at $25, and if You commence an arbitration seeking relief valued at between $1,001 and $10,000, Your share of such fees shall be capped at $100. If You commence an arbitration seeking relief valued at greater than $10,000, arbitration filing, administrative, and arbitrator fees shall be allocated in accordance with the AAA rules. If You cannot pay Your share of these fees, You may request a fee waiver from the AAA. In addition, Cablevision will consider reimbursing Your share of these fees if You indicate You cannot afford them and, if appropriate, will pay directly all such fees upon Your written request prior to the commencement of the arbitration. You are responsible for all additional costs and expenses that You incur in the arbitration, including, but not limited to, attorneys' or expert witness fees and expenses, unless the arbitrator determines that applicable law requires Cablevision to pay those costs and expenses.

If the arbitrator concludes that Your claim is frivolous or has been brought for an improper purpose (as measured by the standards of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 11(b)), then the AAA rules shall govern the allocation of arbitration fees, and You agree to reimburse Cablevision for any amounts Cablevision may have paid on Your behalf. In addition, in such cases, the arbitrator shall have the same discretion that a court would have to require You to pay Cablevision's attorneys' fees and expenses. If Cablevision is the claimant, the arbitrator shall have the same discretion to require Cablevision to pay Your attorneys' fees and expenses if the arbitrator concludes that Cablevision's claim is frivolous or has been brought for an improper purpose.

YOU AGREE TO ARBITRATE YOUR DISPUTE AND TO DO SO ON AN INDIVIDUAL BASIS; CLASS, REPRESENTATIVE, AND PRIVATE ATTORNEY GENERAL ARBITRATIONS AND ACTIONS ARE NOT PERMITTED. You and Cablevision agree that each party may bring claims against the other only in Your or its individual capacity and may not participate as a class member or serve as a named plaintiff in any purported class, representative, or private attorney general proceeding. This Arbitration Provision does not permit and explicitly prohibits the arbitration of consolidated, class, or representative disputes of any form. In addition, although the arbitrator may award any relief that a court could award that is individualized to the claimant and would not affect other Cablevision account holders, neither You nor Cablevision may seek, nor may the arbitrator award, non-individualized relief that would affect other account holders. Further, the arbitrator may not consolidate or join more than one person's claims unless all parties affirmatively agree in writing.

If any of the prohibitions in the preceding paragraph is held to be unenforceable as to a particular claim, then that claim (and only that claim) must be severed from the arbitration and brought in court. In that instance, or any instance when a claim between You and Cablevision proceeds to court rather than through arbitration, You and Cablevision each waive the right to any trial by jury through this Agreement. If any other portion of this Arbitration Provision is determined to be unenforceable, then the remainder of this Arbitration Provision shall be given full force and effect. The terms of the Arbitration Provision shall survive termination, amendment or expiration of this Agreement.

For purposes of this Agreement, the term "Excepted Claims" shall mean claims by either party relating to a party's intellectual property rights or to the unauthorized use, theft, or piracy of Cablevision products or services. In addition, either You or Cablevision may bring claims in small claims court in Your jurisdiction, if that court has jurisdiction over the parties and the action and the claim complies with the prohibitions on class, representative, and private attorney general proceedings and non-individualized relief discussed above. You may also bring issues to the attention of federal, state, and local executive or administrative agencies.

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Comprar Lexipad Sin Receta & Buy Lexipad Cefadroxil En Linea Con Mc, Gr?Ncef

Cefadroxil is used for treating infections caused by certain bacteria. Cefadroxil is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by interfering with the bacteria's cell wall formation. This weakens the cell wall, causing it to rupture, resulting in death of the bacteria.

Use Cefadroxil as directed by your doctor.

Take Cefadroxil by mouth with or without food. If stomach upset occurs, take with food to reduce stomach irritation.

To clear up your infection completely, take Cefadroxil for the full course of treatment. Keep taking it even if you feel better in a few days.

If you miss a dose of Cefadroxil, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Cefadroxil.

Store Cefadroxil at room temperature, between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Cefadroxil out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do NOT use Cefadroxil if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Cefadroxil or any other cephalosporin (eg, cephalexin).

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Cefadroxil. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have a blood clotting disorder, kidney problems, or stomach or bowel problems (eg, inflammation)

if you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, a severe rash, hives, breathing difficulties, or dizziness) to a penicillin antibiotic (eg, amoxicillin) or other beta-lactam antibiotic (eg, imipenem).

Some medicines may interact with Cefadroxil. However, no specific interactions with Cefadroxil are known at this time.

Ask your health care provider if Cefadroxil may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Contact your doctor right away if stomach pain or cramps, severe diarrhea, or bloody stools occur. Do not treat diarrhea without first checking with your doctor.

Be sure to use Cefadroxil for the full course of treatment. If you do not, the medicine may not clear up your infection completely. The bacteria could also become less sensitive to this or other medicines. This could make the infection harder to treat in the future.

Cefadroxil only works against bacteria; it does not treat viral infections (eg, the common cold).

Long-term or repeated use of Cefadroxil may cause a second infection. Tell your doctor if signs of a second infection occur. Your medicine may need to be changed to treat this.

Diabetes patients - Cefadroxil may cause the results of some tests for urine glucose to be wrong. Ask your doctor before you change your diet or the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Cefadroxil may interfere with certain lab tests. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know you are taking Cefadroxil.

Use Cefadroxil with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to the effects of Cefadroxil.

Use Cefadroxil with extreme caution in children younger than 10 years old who have diarrhea or an infection of the stomach or bowel.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Cefadroxil while you are pregnant. Cefadroxil is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Cefadroxil, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Diarrhea; nausea; stomach upset; vomiting.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); bloody diarrhea; dark urine; decreased urination; fever, chills, or sore throat; joint pain; red, swollen, or blistered skin; seizures; severe diarrhea; stomach pain or cramps; unusual bruising or bleeding; unusual tiredness or weakness; vaginal itching, odor, or discharge; yellowing of the skin or eyes. This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

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Biaxin €2.59 Por pastilla Biaxin is used to treat many different types of bacterial infections affecting the skin and respiratory system. It is also used together with other medicines to treat stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori. Mas informacion Trimox €0.39 Por pastilla Trimox is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as ear infections, bladder infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, and E. coli or salmonella infection. Trimox is also sometimes used together with another antibiotic called clarithromycin (Biaxin) to treat stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. Mas informacion

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Lincocin €5.32 Por pastilla Lincocin is used to treat severe bacterial infections in people who cannot receive penicillin antibiotics. Mas informacion Omnicef €2.57 Por pastilla Omnicef is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as acute flare-ups of chronic bronchitis, middle ear infections, throat and tonsil infections, pneumonia, sinus infections and skin infections. Mas informacion

Anacin (Aspirin, Lindilane

Product Description

Anacin prescribed for treatment of pain, with different nature of appearance (muscle aches, headache, toothache, arthritis and rheumatism, menstrual cramps, pain and fever of common cold) and for reducing of the tendency of blood clots. This medication is a combination of stimulant and salicylate. His mechanism of working is the the following: it blocks several different chemical processes within the body that cause pain, inflammation and fever.

Consult with your doctor about dosage. Anacin may cause stomach upset, so better take it with food to reduce stomach irritation. Use the medicine with a full glass of water and avoid a recumbent position during next 30 minutes.

Before to start treatment with Anacin consult with your doctor or pharmacist if you have: allergy to food, medicines, or other substances, asthma, bleeding or clotting problems, kidney or liver problems, stomach and intestinal problems, growths in the nose, heart problems, upset stomach, heartburn, stomach pain, hives, flu, chickenpox; anxiety, trouble sleeping or heart problems; if you have a plan to become pregnant, or you are pregnant, or you're breastfeeding; if you are taking any prescribed and not prescribed medicine, herbal products, or dietary supplement; vitamin K deficiency; alcoholism or if you consume 3 or more alcohol drinks per day. Children with a stroke, a weaken blood vessel or bleeding in the brain, Kawasaki syndrome or rheumatic disease shouldn't use Anacin.

Patients with an allergy to any ingredient of Anacin, or who has a severe allergic reaction such as rush, hives, breathing difficulties, dizziness to aspirin, tartrazine or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), children or teenagers with flu or chickenpox, patients with bleeding problems such as hemophilia, Von Willebrand disease, low blood platelets, or active severe bleeding and patients, who are taking anticoagulants or methotrexate - shouldn't use Anacin.

Possible side effects

Possible side effects are the following: dizziness, irritability, nausea, nervousness, upset stomach. The severe side effects include allergic reactions such as rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue; confusion; diarrhea; drowsiness; severe or persistent dizziness hearing loss; ringing in the ears; severe or persistent stomach pain or heartburn; black or bloody stools; shakiness; trouble sleeping; vomiting. In case if you think that you feel some symptoms of side effects you should call for medical help immediately.

You must consult with your doctor about interaction between Anacin and the following drugs: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (enalapril), probenecid, or sulfinpyrazone because their effectiveness may be decreased by Anacin; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (acetazolamide) because they may decrease Anacin's effectiveness; insulin or oral anti-diabetics because the risk of their side effects, including low blood sugar may be increased by Anacin; anticoagulants ( heparin, warfarin), clopidogrel, or NSAIDs (ibuprofen, celecoxib) because the risk of their side effects, including risk of bleeding, may be increased by Anacin; quinolones (ciprofloxacin).

Never take more than prescribed dose, even if you missed the one. Try to take it as soon as possible. Or, if it's too late, just skip it and take your usually dose next day in the same regularly time.

In case if you think that you could be overdosed by Anacin you should call for medical help immediately. Symptoms of Anacin overdose are following: agitation; anxiety; confusion; fever; hearing loss; lethargy; lightheadedness, especially upon standing; muscle twitching; nausea; rapid breathing; rapid or irregular heartbeat; ringing in the ears; seizures; shortness of breath; stomach pain; trouble sleeping; vomiting. If you think that you overdosed Anacin, seek medical attention at once.

Store at room temperature between 68-77 F (20-25 C), in a dark and dry place. Save it from children and pets. Watch the expiration date!

The information presented at the site has a general character. Note please this information cannot be used for self-treatment and self diagnosis. You should consult with your doctor or health care adviser regarding any specific instructions of your condition. The information is reliable, but we concede it could contain mistakes. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other damage caused by use of this information on the site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

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Macrodantin - Fda Prescribing Information, Side Effects And Uses, Macrodantin

Macrodantin

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Macrodantin and other antibacterial drugs, Macrodantin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

Macrodantin Description

Macrodantin (nitrofurantoin macrocrystals) is a synthetic chemical of controlled crystal size. It is a stable, yellow, crystalline compound. Macrodantin is an antibacterial agent for specific urinary tract infections. It is available in 25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg capsules for oral administration.

Inactive Ingredients: Each capsule contains edible black ink, gelatin, lactose, starch, talc, titanium dioxide, and may contain FD&C Yellow No. 6 and D&C Yellow No. 10.

Macrodantin - Clinical Pharmacology

Macrodantin is a larger crystal form of Furadantin® (nitrofurantoin). The absorption of Macrodantin is slower and its excretion somewhat less when compared to Furadantin. Blood concentrations at therapeutic dosage are usually low. It is highly soluble in urine, to which it may impart a brown color.

Following a dose regimen of 100 mg q. i.d. for 7 days, average urinary drug recoveries (0-24 hours) on day 1 and day 7 were 37.9% and 35.0%.

Unlike many drugs, the presence of food or agents delaying gastric emptying can increase the bioavailability of Macrodantin, presumably by allowing better dissolution in gastric juices.

MICROBIOLOGY

Nitrofurantoin is a nitrofuran antimicrobial agent with activity against certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism of the antimicrobial action of nitrofurantoin is unusual among antibacterials.

Nitrofurantoin is reduced by bacterial flavoproteins to reactive intermediates which inactivate or alter bacterial ribosomal proteins and other acromolecules. As a result of such inactivations, the vital biochemical processes of protein synthesis, aerobic energy metabolism, DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis, and cell wall synthesis are inhibited. Nitrofurantoin is bactericidal in urine at therapeutic doses. The broad-based nature of this mode of action may explain the lack of acquired bacterial resistance to nitrofurantoin, as the necessary multiple and simultaneous mutations of the target macromolecules would likely be lethal to the bacteria.

Interactions with Other Antibiotics

Antagonism has been demonstrated in vitro between nitrofurantoin and quinolone antimicrobials. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown.

Development of Resistance

Development of resistance to nitrofurantoin has not been a significant problem since its introduction in 1953. Cross-resistance with antibiotics and sulfonamides has not been observed, and transferable resistance is, at most, a very rare phenomenon.

Nitrofurantoin has been shown to be active against most strains of the following bacteria both in vitro and in clinical infections [see Indications and Usage):

Aerobic and facultative Gram-positive microorganisms:

Enterococci (e. g. Enterococcus faecalis)

Aerobic and facultative Gram-negative microorganisms:

NOTE: While nitrofurantoin has excellent activity against Enterococcus faecalis. the majority of Enterococcus faecium isolates are not susceptible to nitorfurantoin.

At least 90 percent of the following microorganisms exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for nitrofurantoin. However, the efficacy of nitrofurantoin in treating clinical infections due to these

microorganisms has not been established in adequate and well-controlled trials.

Aerobic and facultative Gram-positive microorganisms:

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus)

Group D streptococci

Viridans group streptococci

Aerobic and facultative Gram-negative microorganisms:

NOTE: Some strains of Enterobacter species and Klebsiella species are resistant to nitrofurantoin.

Susceptibility Test Methods:

When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should provide cumulative results of the in vitro susceptibility test results for antimicrobial drugs used in resident hospitals to the physician as periodic reports that describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. These reports should aid the physician in selecting the most effective antimicrobial.

Dilution techniques: Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method (broth or agar) (1) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of nitrofurantoin powder. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the criteria provided in Table 1.

Diffusion technique: Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure (2) requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 300 Ilg of nitrofurantoin to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to nitrofurantoin. The disk diffusion interpretive

criteria are provided in Table 1.

Table 1. Susceptibility Interpretive Criteria for Nitrofurantoin

Susceptibility Interpretive Criteria

A report of Susceptible indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the urine reaches the concentrations usually achievable. A report of Intermediate indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where a high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone, which prevents small, uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of Resistant indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the urine reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.

Quality Control: Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of quality control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the test procedures (3). Standard nitrofurantoin powder should provide the following range of values noted in Table 2.

Table 2. Acceptable Quality Control Ranges for Nitrofurantoin

Acceptable Quality Control Ranges

Minimum InhibitoryConcentration (µg/mL)

Disk Diffusion(zone diameter in mm)

a Not applicable

Escherichia coli ATCC 25922

Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212

Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213

Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923

Indications and Usage for Macrodantin

Macrodantin is specifically indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections when due to susceptible strains of Escherichia coli, enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and certain susceptible strains of Klebsiella and Enterobacter species.

Nitrofurantoin is not indicated for the treatment of pyelonephritis or perinephric abscesses.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Macrodantin and other antibacterial drugs, Macrodantin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Nitrofurantoins lack the broader tissue distribution of other therapeutic agents approved for urinary tract infections. Consequently, many patients who are treated with Macrodantin are predisposed to persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria. Urine specimens for culture and susceptibility testing should be obtained before and after completion of therapy. If persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria occurs after treatment with Macrodantin, other therapeutic agents with broader tissue distribution should be selected. In considering the use of Macrodantin, lower eradication rates should be balanced against the increased potential for systemic toxicity and for the development of antimicrobial resistance when agents with broader tissue distribution are utilized.

Contraindications

Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications. Treatment of this type of patient carries an increased risk of toxicity because of impaired excretion of the drug.

Because of the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems (glutathione instability), the drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients at term (38-42 weeks’ gestation), during labor and delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. For the same reason, the drug is contraindicated in neonates under one month of age.

Macrodantin is contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with nitrofurantoin.

Macrodantin is also contraindicated in those patients with known hypersensitivity to nitrofurantoin.

Warnings

ACUTE, SUBACUTE, OR CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS HAVE BEEN OBSERVED IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH NITROFURANTOIN. IF THESE REACTIONS OCCUR, Macrodantin SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND APPROPRIATE MEASURES TAKEN. REPORTS HAVE CITED PULMONARY REACTIONS AS A CONTRIBUTING CAUSE OF DEATH.

CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS (DIFFUSE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS OR PULMONARY FIBROSIS, OR BOTH) CAN DEVELOP INSIDIOUSLY. THESE REACTIONS OCCUR RARELY AND GENERALLY IN PATIENTS RECEIVING THERAPY FOR SIX MONTHS OR LONGER. CLOSE MONITORING OF THE PULMONARY CONDITION OF PATIENTS RECEIVING LONG-TERM THERAPY IS WARRANTED AND REQUIRES THAT THE BENEFITS OF THERAPY BE WEIGHED AGAINST POTENTIAL RISKS (SEE RESPIRATORY REACTIONS).

Hepatotoxicity:

Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely. Fatalities have been reported. The onset of chronic active hepatitis may be insidious, and patients should be monitored periodically for changes in biochemical tests that would indicate liver injury. If hepatitis occurs, the drug should be withdrawn immediately and appropriate measures should be taken.

Neuropathy:

Peripheral neuropathy, which may become severe or irreversible, has occurred. Fatalities have been reported. Conditions such as renal impairment (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine), anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, vitamin B deficiency, and debilitating disease may enhance the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy. Patients receiving long-term therapy should be monitored periodically for changes in renal function.

Optic neuritis has been reported rarely in postmarketing experience with nitrofurantoin formulations.

Hemolytic anemia:

Cases of hemolytic anemia of the primaquine-sensitivity type have been induced by nitrofurantoin. Hemolysis appears to be linked to a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the red blood cells of the affected patients. This deficiency is found in 10 percent of Blacks and a small percentage of ethnic groups of Mediterranean and Near-Eastern origin. Hemolysis is an indication for discontinuing Macrodantin; hemolysis ceases when the drug is withdrawn.

Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea:

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including nitrofurantoin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile .

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile. and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Precautions

Information for Patients

Patients should be advised to take Macrodantin with food to further enhance tolerance and improve drug absorption. Patients should be instructed to complete the full course of therapy; however, they should be advised to contact their physician if any unusual symptoms occur during therapy.

Many patients who cannot tolerate microcrystalline nitrofurantoin are able to take Macrodantin without nausea.

Patients should be advised not to use antacid preparations containing magnesium trisilicate while taking Macrodantin.

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Macrodantin should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e. g. the common cold). When Macrodantin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Macrodantin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

General: Prescribing Macrodantin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Drug Interactions

Antacids containing magnesium trisilicate, when administered concomitantly with nitrofurantoin, reduce both the rate and extent of absorption. The mechanism for this interaction probably is adsorption of nitrofurantoin onto the surface of magnesium trisilicate.

Uricosuric drugs, such as probenecid and sulfinpyrazone, can inhibit renal tubular secretion of nitrofurantoin. The resulting increase in nitrofurantoin serum levels may increase toxicity, and the decreased urinary levels could lessen its efficacy as a urinary tract antibacterial.

DRUG & OR LABORATORY TEST INTERACTIONS

As a result of the presence of nitrofurantoin, a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur. This has been observed with Benedict's and Fehling's solutions but not with the glucose enzymatic test.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Nitrofurantoin was not carcinogenic when fed to female Holtzman rats for 44.5 weeks or to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 75 weeks. Two chronic rodent bioassays utilizing male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and two chronic bioassays in Swiss mice and in BDF 1 mice revealed no evidence of carcinogenicity.

Nitrofurantoin presented evidence of carcinogenic activity in female B6C3F1 mice as shown by increased incidences of tubular adenomas, benign mixed tumors, and granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. In male F344/N rats, there were increased incidences of uncommon kidney tubular cell neoplasms, osteosarcomas of the bone, and neoplasms of the subcutaneous tissue. In one study involving subcutaneous administration of 75 mg/kg nitrofurantoin to pregnant female mice, lung papillary adenomas of unknown significance were observed in the F1 generation.

Nitrofurantoin has been shown to induce point mutations in certain strains of Salmonella typhimurium and forward mutations in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Nitrofurantoin induced increased numbers of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells but not in human cells in culture. Results of the sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila were negative after administration of nitrofurantoin by feeding or by injection. Nitrofurantoin did not induce heritable mutation in the rodent models examined.

The significance of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity findings relative to the therapeutic use of nitrofurantoin in humans is unknown.

The administration of high doses of nitrofurantoin to rats causes temporary spermatogenic arrest; this is reversible on discontinuing the drug. Doses of 10 mg/kg/day or greater in healthy human males may, in certain unpredictable instances, produce a slight to moderate spermatogenic arrest with a decrease in sperm count.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category B. Several reproduction studies have been performed in rabbits and rats at doses up to six times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to nitrofurantoin. In a single published study conducted in mice at 68 times the human dose (based on mg/kg administered to the dam), growth retardation and a low incidence of minor and common malformations were observed. However, at 25 times the human dose, fetal malformations were not observed; the relevance of these findings to humans is uncertain. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nitrofurantoin has been shown in one published transplacental carcinogenicity study to induce lung papillary adenomas in the F1 generation mice at doses 19 times the human dose on a mg/kg basis. The relationship of this finding to potential human carcinogenesis is presently unknown. Because of the uncertainty regarding the human implications of these animal data, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Labor and Delivery

Nursing Mothers

Nitrofurantoin has been detected in human breast milk in trace amounts. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from nitrofurantoin in nursing infants under one month of age, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ).

Pediatric Use

Macrodantin is contraindicated in infants below the age of one month (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ).

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Macrodantin did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. Spontaneous reports suggest a higher proportion of pulmonary reactions, including fatalities, in elderly patients; these differences appear to be related to the higher proportion of elderly patients receiving long-term nitrofurantoin therapy. As in younger patients, chronic pulmonary reactions generally are observed in patients receiving therapy for six months or longer (see WARNINGS ). Spontaneous reports also suggest an increased proportion of severe hepatic reactions, including fatalities, in elderly patients (see WARNINGS ).

In general, the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy should be considered when prescribing Macrodantin. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ). Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Adverse Reactions

CHRONIC, SUBACUTE, OR ACUTE PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY OCCUR.

CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS OCCUR GENERALLY IN PATIENTS WHO HAVE RECEIVED CONTINUOUS TREATMENT FOR SIX MONTHS OR LONGER. MALAISE, DYSPNEA ON EXERTION, COUGH, AND ALTERED PULMONARY FUNCTION ARE COMMON MANIFESTATIONS WHICH CAN OCCUR INSIDIOUSLY. RADIOLOGIC AND HISTOLOGIC FINDINGS OF DIFFUSE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS OR FIBROSIS, OR BOTH, ARE ALSO COMMON MANIFESTATIONS OF THE CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTION. FEVER IS RARELY PROMINENT.

THE SEVERITY OF CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS AND THEIR DEGREE OF RESOLUTION APPEAR TO BE RELATED TO THE DURATION OF THERAPY AFTER THE FIRST CLINICAL SIGNS APPEAR. PULMONARY FUNCTION MAY BE IMPAIRED PERMANENTLY. EVEN AFTER CESSATION OF THERAPY. THE RISK IS GREATER WHEN CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS ARE NOT RECOGNIZED EARLY.

In subacute pulmonary reactions, fever and eosinophilia occur less often than in the acute form. Upon cessation of therapy, recovery may require several months. If the symptoms are not recognized as being drug-related and nitrofurantoin therapy is not stopped, the symptoms may become more severe.

Acute pulmonary reactions are commonly manifested by fever, chills, cough, chest pain, dyspnea, pulmonary infiltration with consolidation or pleural effusion on x-ray, and eosinophilia. Acute reactions usually occur within the first week of treatment and are reversible with cessation of therapy. Resolution often is dramatic (see WARNINGS ).

Changes in EKG (e. g. non-specific ST/T wave changes, bundle branch block) have been reported in association with pulmonary reactions.

Cyanosis has been reported rarely.

Hepatic: Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely (see WARNINGS ).

Neurologic. Peripheral neuropathy, which may become severe or irreversible, has occurred. Fatalities have been reported. Conditions such as renal impairment (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine), anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, vitamin B deficiency, and debilitating diseases may increase the possibility of peripheral neuropathy (see WARNINGS ).

Asthenia, vertigo, nystagmus, dizziness, headache, and drowsiness also have been reported with the use of nitrofurantoin.

Benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), confusion, depression, optic neuritis, and psychotic reactions have been reported rarely. Bulging fontanels, as a sign of benign intracranial hypertension in infants, have been reported rarely.

Dermatologic: Exfoliative dermatitis and erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome) have been reported rarely. Transient alopecia also has been reported.

Allergic: A lupus-like syndrome associated with pulmonary reactions to nitrofurantoin has been reported. Also, angioedema; maculopapular, erythematous, or eczematous eruptions; pruritus; urticaria; anaphylaxis; arthralgia; myalgia; drug fever; chills; and vasculitis (sometimes associated with pulmonary reactions) have been reported. Hypersensitivity reactions represent the most frequent spontaneously-reported adverse events in worldwide postmarketing experience with nitrofurantoin formulations.

Gastrointestinal: Nausea, emesis, and anorexia occur most often. Abdominal pain and diarrhea are less common gastrointestinal reactions. These dose-related reactions can be minimized by reduction of dosage. Sialadenitis and pancreatitis have been reported. There have been sporadic reports of pseudomembranous colitis with the use of nitrofurantoin. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antimicrobial treatment (see WARNINGS ).

Hematologic: Cyanosis secondary to methemoglobinemia has been reported rarely.

Miscellaneous: As with other antimicrobial agents, superinfections caused by resistant organisms, e. g. Pseudomonas species or Candida species, can occur.

Laboratory Adverse Events: The following laboratory adverse events have been reported with the use of nitrofurantoin: increased AST (SGOT), increased ALT (SGPT), decreased hemoglobin, increased serum phosphorus, eosinophilia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency anemia (see WARNINGS ), agranulocytosis, leukopenia, granulocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, megaloblastic anemia. In most cases, these hematologic abnormalities resolved following cessation of therapy. Aplastic anemia has been reported rarely.

Overdosage

Occasional incidents of acute overdosage of Macrodantin have not resulted in any specific symptoms other than vomiting. Induction of emesis is recommended. There is no specific antidote, but a high fluid intake should be maintained to promote urinary excretion of the drug. It is dialyzable.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Macrodantin should be given with food to improve drug absorption and, in some patients, tolerance.

Adults: 50-100 mg four times a day -- the lower dosage level is recommended for uncomplicated urinary tract infections.

Pediatric Patients: 5-7 mg/kg of body weight per 24 hours, given in four divided doses (contraindicated under one month of age).

Therapy should be continued for one week or for at least 3 days after sterility of the urine is obtained. Continued infection indicates the need for reevaluation.

For long-term suppressive therapy in adults, a reduction of dosage to 50-100 mg at bedtime may be adequate. For long-term suppressive therapy in pediatric patients, doses as low as 1 mg/kg per 24 hours, given in a single dose or in two divided doses, may be adequate. SEE WARNINGS SECTION REGARDING RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM THERAPY.

How is Macrodantin Supplied

Macrodantin is available as follows:

25 mg opaque, white capsule imprinted with "Macrodantin 25 mg" and "52427-286".

NDC 52427-286-01 bottle of 100

50 mg opaque, yellow and white capsule imprinted with "Macrodantin 50 mg" and "52427-287".

NDC 52427-287-01 bottle of 100

100 mg opaque, yellow capsule imprinted with "Macrodantin 100 mg" and "52427-288".

NDC 52427-288-01 bottle of 100

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP for Controlled Room Temperature.]

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.

REFERENCES

1.) Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard-Eighth Edition. CLSI document M07-A8 [ISBN 1-56238-689-1]. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2009.

2.) Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard-Tenth Edition. CLSI document M02-A 10 [ISBN 1-56238-688-3]. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2009.

3.) Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Nineteenth Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S19 [ISBN 1-56238-716-2]. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2010.

Distributed by: Almatica Pharma, Inc. Pine Brook, NJ 07058 USA

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Alvogen, Inc. at 1-866-770-3024 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www. fda. gov/medwatch.

NDC 52427-286-01 Rx Only

Macrodantin ® (nitrofurantoin macrocrystals)

URINARY TRACT ANTIBACTERIAL

NDC 52427-287-01 Rx Only

Macrodantin ® (nitrofurantoin macrocrystals)

URINARY TRACT ANTIBACTERIAL

NDC 52427-288-01 Rx Only

Macrodantin ® (nitrofurantoin macrocrystals)

URINARY TRACT ANTIBACTERIAL

Ciflodal, Ciflodal

Ciflodal

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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Ciplox is used to treat different types of bacterial infections. It may also be used to prevent or slow anthrax after exposure.

Take Cipro exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Take Cipro with a full glass of water (8 ounces). Drink several extra glasses of fluid each day while you are taking this medicine. Cipro may be taken with or without food, but take it at the same time each day. Shake the oral suspension (liquid) for at least 15 seconds just before you measure a dose. To be sure you get the correct dose, measure the liquid with a marked measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

When taking the Cipro oral liquid, swallow it without chewing the medicine beads you may notice in the liquid.

Do not crush, chew, or break an extended-release tablet. Swallow it whole. Breaking the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time. Do not take Cipro with dairy products such as milk or yogurt, or with calcium-fortified juice. You may eat or drink these products as part of a regular meal, but do not use them alone when taking Cipro. They could make the medication less effective.

Take Cipro for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Cipro will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Store Cipro at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

If you missed a dose - take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

Take exactly as prescribed by your Health Provider.

Store this medicine at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

You should not use Ciplox if you are taking tizanidine (Zanaflex), if you have a history of myasthenia gravis, or if you are allergic to ciprofloxacin or similar antibiotics such as gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and others.

Before taking Ciplox, tell your doctor if you have a heart rhythm disorder, kidney or liver disease, joint problems, diabetes, muscle weakness or trouble breathing, a condition called pseudotumor cerebri, a history of seizures, a history of head injury or brain tumor, low levels of potassium in your blood, a personal or family history of Long QT syndrome, or if you have ever had an allergic reaction to an antibiotic.

Do not take Ciplox with dairy products such as milk or yogurt, or with calcium-fortified juice. Avoid taking antacids, vitamin or mineral supplements, sucralfate (Carafate), or didanosine (Videx) powder or chewable tablets within 6 hours before or 2 hours after you take Ciplox. Ciprofloxacin may cause swelling or tearing of a tendon (the fiber that connects bones to muscles in the body), especially in the Achilles' tendon of the heel. Stop taking Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have sudden pain, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or movement problems in any of your joints. Rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions.

You should NOT take Ciplox if:

you are also taking tizanidine (Zanaflex);

you have a history of myasthenia gravis; or

you are allergic to ciprofloxacin or similar medications such as gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), ofloxacin (Floxin), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and others.

To make sure you can safely take Ciplox, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

heart rhythm disorder, especially if you take quinidine (Quin-G), disopyramide (Norpace), bretylium (Bretylol), procainamide (Pronestyl, Procan SR), amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), or sotalol (Betapace);

a history of head injury or brain tumor;

a condition called pseudotumor cerebri (high pressure inside the skull that may cause headaches, vision loss, or other symptoms);

a history of allergic reaction to an antibiotic;

joint problems;

kidney or liver disease;

epilepsy or seizures;

diabetes;

muscle weakness or trouble breathing;

low levels of potassium in your blood (hypokalemia); or

a personal or family history of Long QT syndrome.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether Ciplox will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using it. Ciprofloxacin passes into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby. Ciplox may cause swelling or tearing of a tendon (the fiber that connects bones to muscles in the body), especially in the Achilles' tendon of the heel. These effects may be more likely to occur if you are over 60, if you take steroid medication, or if you have had a kidney, heart, or lung transplant. Stop taking Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have sudden pain, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or movement problems in any of your joints. Rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions. Do not share Ciplox with another person (especially a child), even if they have the same symptoms you have.

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to Ciplox: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

severe dizziness, fainting, fast or pounding heartbeats;

sudden pain, snapping or popping sound, bruising, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or loss of movement in any of your joints;

diarrhea that is watery or bloody;

confusion, hallucinations, depression, unusual thoughts or behavior;

seizure (convulsions);

severe headache, ringing in your ears, dizziness, nausea, vision problems, pain behind your eyes;

pale or yellowed skin, dark colored urine, fever, weakness;

urinating less than usual or not at all;

easy bruising or bleeding;

numbness, tingling, or unusual pain anywhere in your body;

the first sign of any skin rash, no matter how mild; or

severe skin reaction -- fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain, followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.

Less serious side effects:

nausea, vomiting;

dizziness or drowsiness;

blurred vision;

feeling nervous, anxious, or agitated; or

sleep problems (insomnia or nightmares).

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

Antibiotics - Ciflodal (Brand name: ciplox)

Ciplox is used to treat different types of bacterial infections. It may also be used to prevent or slow anthrax after exposure.

Take Cipro exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Take Cipro with a full glass of water (8 ounces). Drink several extra glasses of fluid each day while you are taking this medicine. Cipro may be taken with or without food, but take it at the same time each day. Shake the oral suspension (liquid) for at least 15 seconds just before you measure a dose. To be sure you get the correct dose, measure the liquid with a marked measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

When taking the Cipro oral liquid, swallow it without chewing the medicine beads you may notice in the liquid.

Do not crush, chew, or break an extended-release tablet. Swallow it whole. Breaking the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time. Do not take Cipro with dairy products such as milk or yogurt, or with calcium-fortified juice. You may eat or drink these products as part of a regular meal, but do not use them alone when taking Cipro. They could make the medication less effective.

Take Cipro for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Cipro will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Store Cipro at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

If you missed a dose - take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

Take exactly as prescribed by your Health Provider.

Store this medicine at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

You should not use Ciplox if you are taking tizanidine (Zanaflex), if you have a history of myasthenia gravis, or if you are allergic to ciprofloxacin or similar antibiotics such as gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and others.

Before taking Ciplox, tell your doctor if you have a heart rhythm disorder, kidney or liver disease, joint problems, diabetes, muscle weakness or trouble breathing, a condition called pseudotumor cerebri, a history of seizures, a history of head injury or brain tumor, low levels of potassium in your blood, a personal or family history of Long QT syndrome, or if you have ever had an allergic reaction to an antibiotic.

Do not take Ciplox with dairy products such as milk or yogurt, or with calcium-fortified juice. Avoid taking antacids, vitamin or mineral supplements, sucralfate (Carafate), or didanosine (Videx) powder or chewable tablets within 6 hours before or 2 hours after you take Ciplox. Ciprofloxacin may cause swelling or tearing of a tendon (the fiber that connects bones to muscles in the body), especially in the Achilles' tendon of the heel. Stop taking Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have sudden pain, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or movement problems in any of your joints. Rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions.

You should NOT take Ciplox if:

you are also taking tizanidine (Zanaflex);

you have a history of myasthenia gravis; or

you are allergic to ciprofloxacin or similar medications such as gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), ofloxacin (Floxin), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and others.

To make sure you can safely take Ciplox, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

heart rhythm disorder, especially if you take quinidine (Quin-G), disopyramide (Norpace), bretylium (Bretylol), procainamide (Pronestyl, Procan SR), amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), or sotalol (Betapace);

a history of head injury or brain tumor;

a condition called pseudotumor cerebri (high pressure inside the skull that may cause headaches, vision loss, or other symptoms);

a history of allergic reaction to an antibiotic;

joint problems;

kidney or liver disease;

epilepsy or seizures;

diabetes;

muscle weakness or trouble breathing;

low levels of potassium in your blood (hypokalemia); or

a personal or family history of Long QT syndrome.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether Ciplox will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using it. Ciprofloxacin passes into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby. Ciplox may cause swelling or tearing of a tendon (the fiber that connects bones to muscles in the body), especially in the Achilles' tendon of the heel. These effects may be more likely to occur if you are over 60, if you take steroid medication, or if you have had a kidney, heart, or lung transplant. Stop taking Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have sudden pain, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or movement problems in any of your joints. Rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions. Do not share Ciplox with another person (especially a child), even if they have the same symptoms you have.

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to Ciplox: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

severe dizziness, fainting, fast or pounding heartbeats;

sudden pain, snapping or popping sound, bruising, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or loss of movement in any of your joints;

diarrhea that is watery or bloody;

confusion, hallucinations, depression, unusual thoughts or behavior;

seizure (convulsions);

severe headache, ringing in your ears, dizziness, nausea, vision problems, pain behind your eyes;

pale or yellowed skin, dark colored urine, fever, weakness;

urinating less than usual or not at all;

easy bruising or bleeding;

numbness, tingling, or unusual pain anywhere in your body;

the first sign of any skin rash, no matter how mild; or

severe skin reaction -- fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain, followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.

Less serious side effects:

nausea, vomiting;

dizziness or drowsiness;

blurred vision;

feeling nervous, anxious, or agitated; or

sleep problems (insomnia or nightmares).

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

Sinova, Sinova

Sinova

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

Was this page helpful?

Orelox (Cefpodoxime), Orelox

Orelox (cefpodoxime)

What is it used for?

Bacterial infections of the lungs, eg acute bronchitis. flare-ups of chronic bronchitis. pneumonia .

Bacterial infections of the ears, nose or throat, eg otitis media. sinusitis. pharyngitis, tonsillitis .

Bacterial infections of the urinary tract or kidneys (pyelonephritis).

Gonorrhoea .

Bacterial infections of the skin or soft tissue, eg abscesses, boils, cellulitis, folliculitis, infected wounds or ulcers.

How does it work?

Orelox tablets and paediatric oral suspension contain the active ingredient cefpodoxime, which is a type of medicine called an antibiotic. Cefpodoxime is a type of antibiotic called a cephalosporin. These antibiotics are related to penicillin. Cefpodoxime is used to treat infections wih bacteria .

Cefpodoxime works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls. The cell walls of bacteria are vital for their survival. They keep unwanted substances from entering their cells and stop the contents of their cells from leaking out. Cefpodoxime impairs the bonds that hold the bacterial cell wall together. This allows holes to appear in the cell walls and kills the bacteria.

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Cefpodoxime is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that kills a wide variety of bacteria that cause a wide variety of commonly-occuring infections. Cefpodoxime is given by mouth to treat infections of the upper and lower airways, skin and soft tissue. It may also be used to treat urinary tract infections.

To make sure the bacteria causing an infection are susceptible to cefpodoxime your doctor may take a tissue sample, for example a swab from the throat or skin, or a urine, sputum or blood sample.

How do I take it?

The dose of this medicine and how long it needs to be taken for depends on the type of infection you have, your age and your kidney function. Follow the instructions given by your doctor. These will be printed on the dispensing label that your pharmacist has put on the packet of medicine.

Cefpodoxime is usually taken twice a day (every 12 hours). Each dose should be taken with food.

Orelox tablets should be swallowed with liquid.

Bottles of suspension should be shaken before measuring out a dose. Only use the measuring spoon provided with the medicine. You should not use a regular teaspoon or tablespoon to give the medicine, as this will not give an accurate dose.

Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, it is important that you finish the prescribed course of this antibiotic medicine, even if you feel better or it seems the infection has cleared up. Stopping the course early increases the chance that the infection will come back and that the bacteria will grow resistant to the antibiotic.

Warning!

Broad-spectrum antibiotics can sometimes cause inflammation of the bowel (colitis). For this reason, if you get diarrhoea either during or after taking this medicine, particularly if it becomes severe or persistent, or contains blood or mucus, you should consult your doctor immediately.

Orelox suspension should be stored in a refrigerator (2°C-8°C). Any medicine remaining after 10 days should be disposed of, preferably by returning it to your pharmacist.

Use with caution in

Not to be used in

Allergy to other cephalosporin-type antibiotics .

Babies under 15 days old, as the medicine has not been studied in this age group.

Orelox suspension is not suitable for people with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, fructose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency.

Orelox suspension contains aspartame and is not suitable for people with an inherited disorder of protein metabolism called phenylketonuria.

Orelox tablets contain lactose and are not suitable for people with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption.

This medicine should not be used if you are allergic to one or any of its ingredients. Please inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have previously experienced such an allergy. If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using this medicine and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

Certain medicines should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding. However, other medicines may be safely used in pregnancy or breastfeeding providing the benefits to the mother outweigh the risks to the unborn baby. Always inform your doctor if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, before using any medicine.

This medicine is not known to be harmful when used by pregnant women. However, as with all medicines, it should be used with caution during pregnancy and only when considered essential by your doctor, particularly during the first trimester. Seek medical advice from your doctor.

This medicine passes into breast milk. It is not known to be harmful if used during breastfeeding, however it should be used with caution in breastfeeding mothers and only if the expected benefit to the mother is greater than any possible risk to the nursing infant. Seek medical advice from your doctor.

Label warnings

Take this medication with or after food.

Do not take indigestion remedies at the same time of day as this medication.

Take at regular intervals. Complete the prescribed course unless otherwise directed.

Side effects

Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with this medicine. Just because a side effect is stated here, it does not mean that all people using this medicine will experience that or any side effect.

Diarrhoea.

Nausea.

Vomiting.

Abdominal pain.

Rash or hives.

Itching.

Headache.

Dizziness.

Sensation of ringing or other noise in the ears (tinnitus).

Pins and needles sensations.

Feeling weak.

Allergic reaction to active ingredient.

Fever.

Joint pain.

Inflammation of the large intestine (colitis) - see warning section above.

Severe allergic skin reactions.

Disturbances in the numbers of blood cells in the blood.

Prolonged treatment with antibiotics can sometimes cause overgrowth of other organisms that are not susceptible to the antibiotic, for example fungi or yeasts such as Candida. This may sometimes cause infections such as thrush. Tell your doctor if you think you have developed a new infection during or after taking this antibiotic.

The side effects listed above may not include all of the side effects reported by the medicine's manufacturer. For more information about any other possible risks associated with this medicine, please read the information provided with the medicine or consult your doctor or pharmacist.

How can this medicine affect other medicines?

It is important to tell your doctor or pharmacist what medicines you are already taking, including those bought without a prescription and herbal medicines, before you start treatment with this medicine. Similarly, check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any new medicines while taking this one, to make sure that the combination is safe .

Antacids and H2 antagonists, such as cimetidine, famotidine and ranitidine . may reduce the absorption of cefpodoxime from the gut and thus make it less effective at treating infection. These medicines should not be taken within two to three hours of taking cefpodoxime.

In the past, women using hormonal contraception such as the pill or patch would be advised to use an extra method of contraception (eg condoms) while taking an antibiotic like this one and for seven days after finishing the course. However, this advice has now changed. You no longer need to use an extra method of contraception with the pill, patch or vaginal ring while you take a course of antibiotics. This change in advice comes because to date there is no evidence to prove that antibiotics (other than rifampicin or rifabutin) affect these contraceptives. This is the latest guidance from the Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare.

However, if you are taking the contraceptive pill and experience vomiting or diarrhoea as a result of taking this antibiotic, you should follow the instructions for vomiting and diarrhoea described in the leaflet provided with your pills.

Broad spectrum antibiotics such as cefpodoxime may enhance the effect of anticoagulant medicines to prevent blood clots, such as warfarin . If you are taking warfarin your doctor may want you to have your blood clotting time (INR) checked more frequently while taking this antibiotic.

Oral typhoid vaccine ( Vivotif ) should not be taken until at least three days after you have finished a course of this antibiotic, because the antibiotic could make this vaccine less effective.

Probenecid may increase the blood level of cefpodoxime.

Other medicines containing the same active ingredient

There are currently no other medicines available in the UK that contain cefpodoxime as the active ingredient.

Last updated 10.05.2011

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Aerox R 2016 - Scooters - Yamaha Motor Uk, Aerox

Download factsheet +/- 1.2Mb Download a factsheet

Life is a race

Aerox R is the coolest 2-stroke sports scooter ever built by Yamaha. Its race-type R-series bodywork cuts the air like a knife and for super-responsive acceleration it runs with a liquid-cooled 50cc 2-stroke engine. The sports chassis and 190mm front and rear disc brakes make for sharp handling and remarkable stopping.

Its exclusive features include a high spec LCD instrument panel as well as underseat storage for a full-face helmet. For 2016 the Aerox R is available in a sporty white and black colour scheme that immediately gives a Yamaha big sport motorcycles look and feel.

Riding this awesome-looking scooter you'll discover a new world. Life is a race.

Colours

Pricing

Aerox R £ 2,249.00 All prices include On-the-Road preparation charges, delivery to dealer, number plates, pre-delivery inspection, petrol and VAT at 20%. Government first registration fee and Vehicle Excise Duty is excluded and will be charged additionally at the prevailing rate.

2016 Yamaha Aerox

Ultimate Yamaha 2-stroke!

Everything about this high-tech sports 50cc is designed to give head-turning style, high-revving performance and ultra-sharp handling that every teenage rider dreams about. Just take a look at the supersport-style lightweight bodywork that's bringing R-series motorcycle style to the scooter sport segment. Twist the throttle and feel the super-responsive liquid-cooled 2-stroke engine accelerate rapidly away from the traffic lights. And for ultra-sharp handling and easy manoeuvrability, the Aerox R runs with a lightweight sports chassis and 13inch cast-alloy wheels. Aerox R: Ultimate Yamaha 2-stroke.

R-series styled lightweight 2-stroke

The Aerox R owns the street. And teenager riders know that this is the only scooter to be seen on. With its sharp-handling sports chassis, dynamic R-series styling and super-responsive liquid-cooled 2-stroke engine, the Aerox R is built to rule the 50cc sport scooter class. And no other model comes close.

Radical supersport style

Check out the Aerox R profile and it is clear that this sports scooter shares a whole lot of DNA with Yamaha's R-series supersport bikes. From the lightweight cowl through to the upswept tail and triangular rear light, the Aerox R comes with high-performance sports genes as standard. For 2016 it gets even more sportier with white and black livery.

Revvy twist-and-go 2-stroke performance

The Aerox R looks great, feels great and goes like only a 2-stroke can! Teenage riders everywhere are going to love the punchy power that our latest-generation liquid-cooled 2-stroke 50cc engine kicks out. It's like nothing else. And it's what makes this Aerox R one very special sports scooter.

Lightweight wheels with 190mm discs

For an overall low weight, the Aerox R is equipped with 13inch lightweight cast-alloy wheels. For superior grip and enhanced sports appearance, there's a wide 140/60-13 rear tyre and a 130/60-13 front tyre. And large-diameter 190mm front and rear discs give the Aerox rider some serious braking performance and control.

High overall specification

This supersport-style scooter doesn't just look cool - it also comes fully-equipped with a whole load of high-tech features including a LCD instrument panel and dynamic headlights. And because it's a Yamaha you can be sure that the quality and reliability underline its position as the premium sports scooter.

Sharp-handling sports chassis

To handle the super-responsive 2-stroke engine we've equipped the Aerox R with a compact tubular sports frame. Running with hydraulic-telescopic front forks and sturdy rear suspension, this lightweight chassis makes the Aerox so agile to manoeuvre around town, as well as a superb performer to nip in and out of traffic with ease.

Everyday practicality

OK, so this is one of the coolest models on the street today. But that doesn't mean that you have to compromise on everyday convenience! Under the seat there's storage space for a full-face helmet, while the spacious footboard and roomy dual seat allow for sporty or relaxed riding positions. And with the 7-litre fuel tank you can go a long way.

Defile - Definition From The Kjv Dictionary, Dedile

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KJV Dictionary Definition: defile

defile

1. To make unclean; to render foul or dirty; in a general sense.

2. To make impure; to render turbid; as, the water or liquor is defiled.

3. To soil or sully; to tarnish; as reputation, &c.

He is among the greatest prelates of the age, however his character may be defiled by dirty hands.

They shall defile thy brightness. Ezek. 28.

4. To pollute; to make ceremonially unclean.

That which dieth of itself, he shall not eat, to defile himself therewith. Lev. 22.

5. To corrupt chastity; to debauch; to violate; to tarnish the purity of character by lewdness.

Schechem defiled Dinah. Gen. 34.

6. To taint, in a moral sense; to corrupt; to vitiate; to render impure with sin.

Defile not yourselves with the idols of Egypt. Ezek. 20.

He hath defiled the sanctuary of the Lord. Numb. 19.

DEFILE, v. i. L. A thread. To march off in a line, or file by file; to file off.

DEFILE, n. A narrow passage or way, in which troops may march only in a file, or with a narrow front; a long narrow pass, as between hills, &c.

defiled

DEFILED, pp. Made dirty, or foul; polluted; soiled; corrupted; violated; vitiated.

defilement

1. The act of defiling, or state of being defiled; foulness; dirtiness; uncleanness.

2. Corruption of morals, principles or character; impurity; pollution by sin.

The chaste cannot rake into such filth without danger of defilement.

defiler

DEFILER, n. One who defiles; one who corrupts or violates; that which pollutes.

defiling

1. Polluting; making impure.

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Article Page, Deflatop

Foams for pharmaceutical and cosmetic application

A. Arzhavitina

H. Steckel .

Department of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Christian Albrecht University Kiel, Gutenbergstr. 76, D-24118 Kiel, Germany

Received 31 July 2009. Revised 21 April 2010. Accepted 21 April 2010. Available online 29 April 2010.

Abstract

Foaming of cleaning agents in the household is an effect which is not connected with the quality of cleaning process. Foam development of some cosmetic formulations such as hair mousse or shaving foam has its functionality. Foam formation during application of a foam bath or shampoo is only a cosmetic attribute. In the pharmacy, foams represent new vehicles for drug delivery. The European Pharmacopoeia comprises a monograph called “Medicated Foams” and the interest for the development of these alternative vehicles is steadily growing. Depending on the way of pharmaceutical application we can define between rectal, vaginal and topical foams. Foams for dermal drug delivery have some advantages compared to the traditional vehicles for treatment of topical disorders such as ointment, creams, lotions, gels or solutions. Vaginal and rectal foam vehicles also feature some application benefits compared to the standard vehicles such as suppositories, creams and ointments. There are only a few foam formulations commercially available so far. Moreover, only few publications describing these vehicles have appeared in the recent years, predominantly patents. It is the intention of this article to review available literature, to summarize recent development and to highlight the potential of foam vehicles.

Keywords

Dermal foams

Rectal foams

Vaginal foams

Foam stability

Pressurized aerosol foam

Table 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

Corresponding author. Tel. +49 431 8801330; fax: +49 431 8801352.

Mupirocin Topical Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings - Dosing, Mupiral

mupirocin topical

Uses

Mupirocin is used to treat certain skin infections (such as impetigo ). It is an antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of certain bacteria.

How to use mupirocin topical

Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start using mupirocin and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Use this medication only on the skin. Clean and dry the affected area first. Then apply a small amount of ointment to the area as directed by your doctor, usually 3 times a day. You may cover the treated area with a bandage.

Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. Continue to use it for the full time prescribed, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping the medication too early may result in a return of the infection.

Avoid using this medication around your eyes. nose, mouth. or on large areas of damaged or broken skin unless otherwise directed by your doctor. If you accidentally get it in your eyes. nose, or mouth. rinse well with plenty of water.

Tell your doctor if your condition does not get better in 3 to 5 days.

Side Effects

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Although uncommon, mild burning or stinging after using this medication may occur. If you have severe burning, stinging, or irritation, stop using this medication and tell your doctor right away.

This medication may rarely cause a severe intestinal condition (Clostridium difficile - associated diarrhea ) due to a type of resistant bacteria. This condition may occur during treatment or weeks to months after treatment has stopped. Tell your doctor right away if you develop: diarrhea that doesn't stop, abdominal or stomach pain /cramping, blood /mucus in your stool.

Do not use anti-diarrhea products or narcotic pain medications if you have any of these symptoms because these products may make them worse.

Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in a new skin infection caused by fungus or yeast. Tell your doctor right away if you notice signs of a new infection, or if your current infection does not get better or if it gets worse.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction. including: rash. itching /swelling (especially of the face/tongue /throat), severe dizziness. trouble breathing .

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www. fda. gov/medwatch.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Precautions

Before using mupirocin, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients (such as polyethylene glycol found in some brands), which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney disease (if you are using a brand of mupirocin that contains polyethylene glycol).

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

During pregnancy. this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast - feeding.

Interactions

Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

Overdose

This medicine may be harmful if swallowed. If swallowing or overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

Notes

Do not share this medication with others.

This medication has been prescribed for your current condition only. Do not use it later for another infection unless your doctor directs you to do so. A different medication may be necessary in that case.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose. Use your next dose at the regular time. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Storage

Store at room temperature. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

Information last revised December 2015. Copyright(c) 2015 First Databank, Inc.

Images

Leptin Hormone & Supplements Do They Work For Obesity & Weight Loss, Lipitin

The Facts on Leptin: FAQ

From the WebMD Archives

It's been called the "obesity hormone" or "fat hormone" -- but also the "starvation hormone." When scientists discovered leptin in 1994, excitement arose about its potential as a blockbuster weight loss treatment. Even today, the Internet is loaded with sites that sell leptin supplements. Any truth to those pitches? And what exactly is leptin?

WebMD asked two experts on leptin to discuss how this hormone affects weight and appetite, as well as other aspects of health.

Q. What is leptin?

"Leptin is not our obesity hormone. Leptin is our starvation hormone," says Robert H. Lustig, MD, professor of pediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco and a member of the Endocrine Society's Obesity Task Force.

Leptin is a protein that's made in the fat cells, circulates in the bloodstream, and goes to the brain. "Leptin is the way your fat cells tell your brain that your energy thermostat is set right," Lustig says.

"Leptin tells your brain that you have enough energy stored in your fat cells to engage in normal, relatively expensive metabolic processes," he says. "In other words, when leptin levels are at a certain threshold -- for each person, it's probably genetically set -- when your leptin level is above that threshold, your brain senses that you have energy sufficiency, which means you can burn energy at a normal rate, eat food at a normal amount, engage in exercise at a normal rate, and you can engage in expensive processes, like puberty and pregnancy ".

But when people diet, they eat less and their fat cells lose some fat, which then decreases the amount of leptin produced.

"Let's say you starve, let's say you have decreased energy intake, let's say you lose weight," Lustig says. "Now your leptin level goes below your personal leptin threshold. When it does that, your brain senses starvation. That can occur at any leptin level, depending on what your leptin threshold is."

"Your brain senses that and says, ‘Hey, I don't have the energy onboard that I used to. I am now in a starvation state,'" Lustig says.

Then several processes begin within the body to drive leptin levels back up. One includes stimulation of the vagus nerve, which runs between the brain and the abdomen.

"The vagus nerve is your energy storage nerve," Lustig says. "Now the vagus nerve is turned on, so you get hungrier. Every single thing the vagus nerve does…[is] designed to make you take up extra energy and store it in your fat. Why? To generate more leptin so that your leptin can re-establish its personal leptin threshold. It causes you to eat and it causes you to get your leptin back to where it belongs."

Continued

Q. How does leptin affect weight

"Here's the question: If this thing works like a thermostat -- an adipostat -- why do we keep gaining weight?" Lustig says.

The problem is that overweight people have large amounts of leptin, but their brains aren't getting the important signal to stop eating.

"How come the brain doesn't get it? That phenomenon is called ‘leptin resistance,'" says Lustig, who has done research on the subject. Leptin resistance is similar to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. in which the pancreas produces large amounts of insulin. but the body doesn't respond to it properly.

Leptin levels can keep going higher as people get fatter. "We all have a leptin floor; the problem is, we don't have a leptin ceiling," Lustig says.

"In leptin resistance, your leptin is high, which means you're fat, but your brain can't see it. In other words, your brain is starved, while your body is obese. And that's what obesity is: it's brain starvation."

Not only is leptin part of the hunger system, it's also part of the reward system, Lustig says. "When your leptin levels are low, food is even more rewarding. When your leptin levels are high, that's supposed to extinguish the reward system so that you don't need to eat so much, and food doesn't look nearly as good."

But in leptin-resistant people, the reward system doesn't cue a person to stop eating when leptin levels rise, Lustig says. "The leptin is being made by the fat cells, the fat cells are trying to tell the brain, ‘Hey, I don't need to eat so much,' but the brain can't get the signal. You feel hungrier and the reward doesn't get extinguished. It only gets fostered, and so you eat more and you keep going and it becomes a vicious cycle. If your brain can't see the leptin signal, you're going to get obese."

Q. Can leptin work as an obesity treatment?

That was the great hope after leptin's discovery in 1994, says Richard Atkinson, MD, an endocrinologist, obesity expert, and clinical professor of pathology at Virginia Commonwealth University.

Continued

According to Atkinson, mouse experiments that began in the early 1970s pointed to "some sort of a hormone that affected food intake and body fat, but [scientists] didn't know what it was."

When researchers finally discovered leptin in 1994, it helped "put obesity on the map because it suggested…obesity may have some physiological basis, instead of just being, "fat people can't keep their mouth shut,'" Atkinson says. "For those of us in the field of obesity, it was a watershed moment. Suddenly, everybody jumped on the bandwagon. This became a frantic obsession with the obesity community, at least."

Many scientists explored leptin as a possible treatment for obesity; they believed that if people were leptin-deficient, giving them leptin would raise levels, which would signal them to stop overeating. "But when you started giving it to people, it didn't work so well," Atkinson says.

"This stuff is made by fat tissue, and as you get fatter, you make more of it. That was quite a shock because everybody thought that obese people were going to be deficient in leptin," he says.

With the more recent understanding of leptin resistance, it makes no sense to give people leptin if they have an impaired response, Lustig says. "The resistance is still there. No amount of leptin is going to overcome that resistance."

Giving leptin only helps in a few extremely rare cases in the world in which people make no leptin at all, which causes them to overeat and become obese. When those people received leptin by injection, they stopped overeating and lost weight. But for the vast majority of people, the treatment won't work, nor is leptin approved as a medical treatment for weight loss.

"Leptin is still sort of experimental. There's no real need to take leptin now, unless you're one of those very small -- probably 100 people in the world -- who doesn't make leptin," Atkinson says.

Q. What about leptin supplements, such as those sold on the Internet?

Because leptin is a digestible protein that doesn’t enter the bloodstream, it can’t be taken in supplement form, Atkinson says. “If you were to take it as a pill, it’s just like eating chicken or beef. It’s a protein and your body would just break it up, so you wouldn’t absorb it from a pill.”

Continued

So those “leptin supplements ” sold on the Internet don’t actually contain leptin, even though their name can be misleading. Instead, these supplements contain ingredients that are purported to help improve leptin functioning or feelings of fullness.

“A variety of these supplements may be more aimed at total wellness -- things like helping balance other hormones, thyroid hormones -- just optimizing health so that the body begins to respond to leptin more appropriately and allows the person to feel full,” says Duffy MacKay, ND, a licensed naturopathic doctor who serves as vice president of scientific and regulatory affairs at the Council for Responsible Nutrition. a trade group for the supplements industry.

“Some of what you’re seeing is tried-and-true ingredients that are known to cause satiety, things like soluble fibers that have been known for a long time to help make people full,” MacKay says.

As for supplements’ effects on leptin functioning, the picture is less clear, he says. “The leptin science has only been unraveling since 1994, so there are a lot of unanswered questions.”

“No magic bullets are being discovered,” MacKay says. “[But] we shouldn’t write this pathway off as something that we shouldn’t continue to explore.”

Rather than taking supplements that haven’t been fully proven to help, overweight people have other options to aid leptin functioning, experts say. Lustig advises them to reduce resistance to insulin (a hormone that controls blood sugar ) and to bring down high levels of triglycerides (a blood lipid).

“Insulin resistance generates leptin resistance. The practical advice is: Get your insulin down,” Lustig says. “How do you get insulin down? The best way is don’t let it go up. Sugar makes insulin go up. We are overdosed on sugar in this country. I think that if we got the sugar down, our insulin resistance would improve and that would help with the weight loss.”

Reducing high triglyceride levels helps, too, Lustig says. Too much triglyceride interferes with leptin’s journey from the blood to the brain via a leptin transporter that allows the hormone into the brain.

“When you’re insulin-resistant, you have high triglyceride [levels]. That’s one of the hallmarks,” Lustig says. “Triglyceride seems to block leptin transport into the brain. In order to make your leptin work, you have to let the signaling occur. The only way to let the signaling occur is to get your triglyceride down.”

Continued

Q. Does leptin affect other parts of the body?

Leptin appears to have many functions that scientists are still exploring. "It didn't work as a weight loss agent, but there's now starting to be some other things that are really interesting about it," Atkinson says.

The hormone plays a role in heart and bone health, Lustig says. "We know that leptin is very important in keeping the immune system happy and that chronic inflammation occurs in the face of inadequate leptin signaling, and that's part of cardiovascular disease ."

"We also know that leptin has direct effects on bone to increase bone health and bone mineral density. so when your leptin's working right, your bones are healthier and they accrue more calcium ," he says.

Scientists are also finding some associations between leptin and certain cancers, Atkinson says. For example, some recent research suggests that leptin can promote the growth of melanoma. a type of skin cancer .

According to Atkinson, leptin may even affect women's fertility. "If the brain doesn't sense leptin, you won't be fertile. If you think back to our caveman days, when there were lots of famines, if you didn't have enough fat to survive a pregnancy, then you're better off not getting pregnant in the first place. Some people have thought that the leptin feeds back on the hypothalamus to keep the reproductive hormones working well, too."

WebMD Feature Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on 1/, 010

Sources

Richard Atkinson, MD, clinical professor of pathology, Virginia Commonwealth University.

Robert H. Lustig, MD, professor of pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco; member, Endocrine Society's Obesity Task Force.

Ellerhorst, J. Oncology Reports . April 2010: pp. 901-907.

© 2010 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.

Urgent - Definition Of Urgent By The Free Dictionary, Urgent

urgent

1. Compelling immediate action or attention; pressing.

2. Conveying a sense of pressing importance: an urgent message.

[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin urgēns , urgent - . present participle of urgēre . to urge .]

Synonyms: urgent , exigent , pressing , imperative These adjectives mean compelling immediate attention. Urgent often implies that a matter takes precedence over others: "For I ride on an errand most urgent, and with the first light of morning we must go" (J. R.R. Tolkien). Exigent and pressing suggest an urgency that requires prompt action: "When once disease was introduced into the rural districts, its effects appeared more horrible, more exigent, and more difficult to cure, than in towns" (Mary Shelley). "The danger now became too pressing to admit of longer delay" (James Fenimore Cooper). Imperative implies a need or demand whose fulfillment cannot be deferred: "The stricken countries of Europe needed everything and could afford to buy nothing. Financial help was imperative" (David McCullough).

urgent

1. requiring or compelling speedy action or attention: the matter is urgent ; an urgent message.

2. earnest and persistent

[C15: via French from Latin urgent-, urgens, present participle of urgere to urge]

urgent

needing immediate attention. There is an urgent message for the doctor. dringend ?????? ???? спешен urgente nalehavy dringend presserende ???????. ????????? urgente kiire(loomuline) ??????? kiireellinen urgent ???? ?????????? hitan surgos mendesak ari?andi urgente ??? ??? skubus steidzigs; neatliekams penting dringend tvingende. presserende. nod-. haste - pilny. ??????? (????)? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? urgente urgent срочный naliehavy nujen hitan bradskande, angelagen ????????????????? acil ??? терміновий, негайний ????? ???? ??? kh?n c?p, doi h?i s? chu y ???

dringend ??????? ???????? спешно urgentemente nalehave dringend presserende ?????????? urgentemente kiiresti ?? ????? kiireellisesti d'urgence ??????? ????? hitno surgosen secara mendesak eins og skot, strax urgentemente ??? ???? skubiai, nedelsiant steidzigi; neatliekami penting dringend patrengende. inntrengende pilnie ???????? ?? ?????? ???? urgentemente de urgenta срочно naliehavo nujno hitno angelaget, ivrigt ??????? acilen ??? терміново, негайно ?????? ????? ?? kh?n c?p, doi h?i s? chu y ???

need for immediate action, speed etc . This is a matter of great urgency. dringendheid ??????? ?????? ???????? спешност urgencia nalehavost die Dringlichkeit nodstilf?lde; meget presserende ???????????? ?????? urgencia pakilisus ????? kiireellisyys urgence ?????? ?????? hitnost surgosseg keadaan mendesak bryn ?orf/nau?syn urgenza ??? ???, ??, ?? skubumas steiga; steidzamiba; neatliekamiba memerlukan tindakan segera urgentie nodstilfelle. tvingende nodvendighet pilnosc ???? urgencia urgenta срочность naliehavost nujnost hitnost vikt, angelagenhet, bradskande natur ?????????? aciliyet, ivedilik ?? настійність, невідкладність ????? ????? ????? s? kh?n c?p ??

urgent

urgent

a. urgente, emergente.

References in classic literature ?

The news had been brought, toward the decline of a day in midsummer, by an Indian runner, who also bore an urgent request from Munro, the commander of a work on the shore of the "holy lake," for a speedy and powerful reinforcement.

Their sites had been anticipated by more urgent buildings and mining works, unfortunately not considered in the sanguine dreams of the enthusiasts, and, more significant still, their cost and expense had been also anticipated by the enormous outlay of their earnings in the work upon Devil's Ditch.

And if he have time, amid the press of more urgent matters, he must take measures for the renewal of Mrs.

And when after gaining his own deck, and his own pivot-hole there, he so vehemently wheeled round with an urgent command to the steersman (it was, as ever, something about his not steering inflexibly enough); then, the already shaken ivory received such an additional twist and wrench, that though it still remained entire, and to all appearances lusty, yet Ahab did not deem it entirely trustworthy.

The rest yielded to Miss Ophelia's urgent representations, that their master's safety depended on their stillness and obedience.

What makes this duty the more urgent is that fact that the country so overrun is not our own, but ours is the invading army.

He jumped for the stair-foot, and closed the door behind him; and as he snatched his candle and fled upward, the stillness of the night was broken by the sound of urgent footsteps approaching the house.

The two smaller children sang together, and Rebecca, at the urgent request of Mrs.

He perfectly knew his own meaning; and having warmly protested against her suspicion as most injurious, and slightly touched upon his respect for Miss Smith as her friend, but acknowledging his wonder that Miss Smith should be mentioned at all, he resumed the subject of his own passion, and was very urgent for a favourable answer.

Their visitors, except those from Barton Park, were not many; for, in spite of Sir John's urgent entreaties that they would mix more in the neighbourhood, and repeated assurances of his carriage being always at their service, the independence of Mrs.

My father and brother had not made my marriage known to their acquaintance; because, in the very first letter I wrote to apprise them of the union--having already begun to experience extreme disgust of its consequences, and, from the family character and constitution, seeing a hideous future opening to me--I added an urgent charge to keep it secret: and very soon the infamous conduct of the wife my father had selected for me was such as to make him blush to own her as his daughter-in-law.

Noel, which I have not mentioned yet, but which is no less urgent in its way than the necessity of the will.

Necon (Norethindrone And Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets) Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Us

Necon® 1/35 (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol) Tablets USP

Necon® 0.5/35 (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol) Tablets USP

Necon® 10/11 (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol) Tablets USP

Necon (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets ) ® 1/50 (norethindrone and mestranol) Tablets USP

Patients should be counseled that this product does not protect against HIV infection (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases.

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Each of the following products is a combination oral contraceptive containing the progestational compound norethindrone and the estrogenic compound ethinyl estradiol:

Necon® 1/35 (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets ) : Each dark yellow tablet contains 1 mg of norethindrone and 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol. Inactive ingredients include D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminum Lake, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose (anhydrous), magnesium stearate, polacrilin potassium. and povidone. Each white tablet in the Necon (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets ) ® 1/35 package contains only inert ingredients, as follows: micro - crystalline cellulose, lactose (anhydrous), and magnesium stearate.

Necon (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets ) ® 0.5/35: Each light yellow tablet contains 0.5 mg of norethindrone and 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol. Inactive ingredients include D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminum Lake, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose (anhydrous), magnesium stearate, polacrilin potassium, and povidone. Each white tablet in the Necon (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets ) ® 0.5/35 package contains only inert ingredients as listed under white tablets in Necon® 1/35 (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets ) .

Necon (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets ) ® 10/11: Each light yellow tablet (10) contains 0.5 mg of norethindrone and 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol. Each dark yellow tablet (11) contains 1 mg of norethindrone and 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol. Inactive ingredients include D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminum Lake, microcrys - talline cellulose, lactose (anhydrous), magnesium stearate, polacrilin potassium, and povidone. Each white tablet in the Necon (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets ) ® 10/11 package contains only inert ingredients as listed under white tablets in Necon® 1/35 (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets ) .

Each of the following products is a combination oral contraceptive containing the progestational compound norethindrone and the estrogenic compound mestranol:

Necon (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets ) ® 1/50: Each light blue tablet contains 1 mg of norethindrone and 0.05 mg of mestranol. Inactive ingredients include FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose (anhydrous), magnesium stearate, polacrilin potassium, and povidone. Each white tablet in the Necon (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets ) ® 1/50 package contains only inert ingredients as listed under white tablets in Necon® 1/35 (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets ) .

The chemical name for norethindrone is 17- hydroxy-19-nor-17a-pregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one, for ethinyl estradiol is 19-nor-17a-pregna - 1,3,5(10)-trien-20-yn-3,17-diol, and for mestranol is 3-methoxy-19-nor-17a-pregna-1,3,5(10)- trien-20-yn-17-ol. The structural formulas are as follows:

What are the possible side effects of birth control pills?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction . hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using birth control pills and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

sudden numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body;

sudden and severe headache, confusion, problems with vision, speech, or balance;

chest pain or heavy feeling, pain spreading to the arm or shoulder, nausea, sweating, general ill feeling;

sudden cough, wheezing, rapid.

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/24/2008 This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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