Laxido Orange, Powder For Oral Solution - Summary Of Product Characteristics (Spc), Laxatol

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www. mhra. gov. uk/yellowcard

Severe distension or pain can be treated using nasogastric aspiration. Vomiting or diarrhoea may induce extensive fluid loss, possibly leading to electrolyte disturbances that should be treated appropriately.

5. Pharmacological properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Osmotically acting laxatives.

ATC code: A06A D65

Macrogol 3350 induces a laxative effect through its osmotic action in the gut. This product also contains electrolytes to ensure that there is no overall gain or loss of water, potassium or sodium.

Clinical studies using the listed active substances for the treatment of chronic constipation have shown that the dose required to produce normally formed stools tends to decrease over time. For most patients, the maintenance dose will be one to two sachets per day (adjusted according to individual response).

Comparative studies in faecal impaction using active controls (e. g. enemas) have not been performed. However, results from a non-comparative study have shown that, from a population of 27 adult patients, the listed combination of active substances cleared faecal impaction in 12/27 (44%) patients after one day's treatment, increasing to 23/27 (85%) following two days' treatment and 24/27 (89%) recovered at the end of three days.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Macrogol 3350 is virtually unabsorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract and is excreted, unaltered, in faeces. Any macrogol 3350 that enters the systemic circulation is excreted in urine.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Preclinical studies provide evidence that macrogol 3350 has no significant systemic toxicity potential, based on conventional studies of pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity and genotoxicity.

There were no direct embryotoxic or teratogenic effects in rats even at maternally toxic levels that are a multiple of 66 x the maximum recommended dose in humans for chronic constipation and 25 x for faecal impaction. Indirect embryofetal effects, including reduction in fetal and placental weights, reduced fetal viability, increased limb and paw hyperflexion and abortions, were noted in the rabbit at a maternally toxic dose that was 3.3 x the maximum recommended dose in humans for treatment of chronic constipation and 1.3 x for faecal impaction. Rabbits are a sensitive animal test species to the effects of GI-acting substances and the studies were conducted under exaggerated conditions with high dose volumes administered, which are not clinically relevant. The findings may have been a consequence of an indirect effect of macrogol 3350 related to poor maternal condition as the result of an exaggerated pharmacodynamic response in the rabbit. There was no indication of a teratogenic effect.

There are long-term animal toxicity and carcinogenicity studies involving macrogol 3350. Results from these and other toxicity studies using high levels of orally administered high molecular weight macrogols provide evidence of safety at the recommended therapeutic dose.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars

6.1 List of excipients

Acesulfame Potassium (E950)

Folic Acid, Folicron

Folic Acid

Click for further information on drug naming conventions and International Nonproprietary Names .

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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Maxepa, Maxepa

Maxepa

References in periodicals archive ?

Prescription pharmaceutical softgel sales decreased 4% in the period due primarily to the continuing world-wide decline of nifedipine which was partially offset by increases in Novartis' Neoral(R) softgels and strong demand for MaxEpa in France.

That's like taking from two to seven MaxEPA fish oil capsules--up to a day's supply.

There are several high EPA supplements on the market from supermarkets, chemists and health food stores including eyeq, VegEPA, Morepa, and Maxepa .

And, he adds, "if you took as much as in our study [18 MaxEPAs a day], it would cost $1,000 a year.

Acertar - Definicion, Acetar

Online Language Dictionaries

Diccionario de la lengua espanola © 2005 Espasa-Calpe:

acertar conjugar ?

tr. Dar en el punto a que se dirige algo: acertar el blanco. Tambien intr. ♦ Se construye con la prep. en: acertar en la diana.

Encontrar, hallar: acertar la calle. Tambien intr. ♦ Se construye con la prep. con: has acertado con la direccion.

En algo dudoso, ignorado u oculto, dar con lo cierto: acerto cinco numeros en la loteria primitiva.

intr. Hacer algo con tino. ♦ Se construye con la contraccion al mas infinitivo: has acertado al elegir esta carrera. Tambien con las preps. con y en: has acertado con la eleccion de tu carrera; has acertado en tu carrera.

Suceder por casualidad. ♦ Se construye con la prep. a mas infinitivo: no acerto a responder. ♦ Irreg. Vease conj. modelo.

' acertar ' aparece tambien en las siguientes entradas:

Preguntas en los foros con la(s) palabra(s) 'acertar' en el titulo:

Befon, Befon

Befon

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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Aethionamidum, Aethionamidum

Livertox

Introduction

Ethionamide is a second line drug in the therapy of tuberculosis used only in combination with other agents and for drug-resistance tuberculosis. Ethionamide has been linked to transient, asymptomatic elevations in serum aminotransferase levels and in uncommon instances of acute liver injury, which can be severe.

Background

Ethionamide (eth" eye on' a mide) is a thio-isonicotinamide somewhat similar in structure to isoniazid. Ethionamide is a prodrug and, like isoniazid, requires activation whereupon it inhibits mycobacterial fatty acid synthesis (enoyl-ACP reductase) that is necessary for cell wall synthesis and repair. Interestingly, there is little cross resistance between isoniazid and ethionamide, probably because they are activated by different mycobacterial enzymes, and therefore can be used together. Ethionamide is currently used only as a secondary agent in the treatment of active tuberculosis, always in combination with other antituberculosis agents such as isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and/or rifampin and usually for multidrug resistant mycobacterial infections or in situations where first agents are contraindicated. Ethionamide also has activity against lepromatous leprosy. Ethionamide is available as 250 mg tablets in generic forms and under the brand name Trecator. The typical dose in adults is 250 mg twice daily, but can then be increased gradually to a total dose of 15 to 20 mg/kg per day to a maximum of 1 gram daily. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6: 50 mg daily) is usually administered with ethionamide. Common side effects include gastrointestinal upset, nausea, anorexia, diarrhea, metallic taste, stomatitis, depression, drowsiness and fatigue.

Hepatotoxicity

Ethionamide therapy has been linked to elevations in serum aminotransferase levels in a proportion of patients, but these elevations are typically self-limited and asymptomatic. More importantly, ethionamide has been linked to many instances of clinical apparent acute liver injury that arise in up to 5% of patients and can be severe and even fatal. The time to onset and clinical features of hepatic injury due to ethionamide resemble those of isoniazid, the latency ranging from 2 weeks to more than 6 months after starting (most arise within 1 to 3 months), and the pattern of enzyme elevations typically being hepatocellular and resembling acute viral hepatitis. Features of hypersensitivity (rash, fever and eosinophilia) are uncommon. Like isoniazid, ethionamide therapy may be associated with development of autoantibodies (typically ANA), but titers are generally low and rarely accompanied by autoimmune conditions.

Mechanism of Injury

Ethionamide is extensively metabolized by the liver and liver injury likely is due to a toxic or immunologically active intermediate. Rapid recurrence of injury upon rechallenge suggests a hypersensitivity reaction.

Outcome and Management

Serum aminotransferase elevations during ethionamide therapy are generally transient and asymptomatic, but elevations accompanied by symptoms of hepatitis and those above five times ULN should lead to prompt discontinuation. Monitoring of serum aminotransferase levels is indicated in patients with underlying liver disease receiving ethionamide and in those with a high risk of developing hepatotoxicity. Some cases of ethionamide hepatotoxicity have been severe and fatal instances have been reported. Cross reactivity to hepatic injury between isoniazid and ethionamide has not been shown, and several patients with clinically apparent liver injury due to ethionamide have later tolerated isoniazid without difficulty.

[First line medications used in the therapy of tuberculosis in the US include ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifabutin, rifampin, and rifapentine. Second line medications include streptomycin, capreomycin, cycloserine, ethionamide, fluoroquinolones such as levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, aminoglycosides such as amikacin, and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS).]

Drug Class: Antituberculosis Agents

References updated: 07 April 2014

Zimmerman HJ. Antituberculosis agents. In, Zimmerman HJ. Hepatotoxicity: the adverse effects of drugs and other chemicals on the liver. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1999, pp. 611-21. (Extensive review of hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis medications including ethambutol published in 1999; mentions that ethionamide has been reported to cause liver injury in 3-5% of patients).

Verma S, Kaplowitz N. Hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis drugs. In, Kaplowitz N, DeLeve LD, eds. Drug-induced liver disease. 3rd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2011, pp. 483-504. (Review of hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis drugs).

Gumbo T. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, mycobacterium avium complex disease and leprosy. In, Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollman BC, eds. Goodman & Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 12th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011, pp. 1549-70. (Textbook of pharmacology and therapeutics).

Clarke GBM, O'Hea AJ. Chronic pulmonary tuberculosis treatment with ethionamide combined with cycloserine or oxytetracycline. Br Med J 1961; 1: 636-8. PubMed Citation (Among 12 patients with drug resistant tuberculosis treated with ethionamide and either cycloserine or oxytetracycline, 1 developed jaundice after 14 weeks [peak bilirubin 12 mg/dL, Alk P 3 times ULN], which was attributed to ethionamide and resolved 3 months after stopping).

Slavin P. Ethionamide in re-treatment of eleven patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1962; 85:745-9. PubMed Citation (Experience in treating 11 patients with drug resistant tuberculosis using ethionamide in combination with multiple agents; 2 patients developed liver injury, but both improved with stopping pyrazinamide while continuing ethionamide).

Phillips S, Trevathan RD. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase elevation and possible hepatotoxicity accompanying the administration of ethionamide. Am Rev Respir Dis 1962; 86: 268-9. PubMed Citation (49 patients with tuberculosis had AST testing during ethionamide therapy; 2 developed elevations at 2 and 6 months, peak levels 83 and 215 U/L, mild symptoms but no jaundice).

Moulding TS Jr, Goldstein S. Hepatotoxicity due to ethionamide. Am Rev Respir Dis 1962; 86: 252-5. PubMed Citation (33 year old man developed jaundice 8 months after starting ethionamide and 6 months after blood transfusions [bilirubin 5.8 mg/dL, AST 520 U/L, Alk P 3 times ULN], improving on stopping and worsening again on restarting ethionamide; later tolerated isoniazid without recurrence; discusses 12 further cases in the literature).

Petty TL, Mitchell RS. Successful treatment of advanced isoniazid - and streptomycin-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis with ethionamide, pyrazinamide, and isoniazid. Am Rev Respir Dis 1962; 86: 503-12. PubMed Citation (Among 70 patients with isoniazid or streptomycin resistance treated with ethionamide, 12 developed AST elevations, but abnormalities were attributed to pyrazinamide; one patient died of liver failure but was also taking isoniazid and pyrazinamide and drinking heavily).

Phillips S, Tashman H. Ethionamide jaundice. Am Rev Respir Dis 1963; 87: 896-8. PubMed Citation (59 year old man developed abnormal liver tests 5 weeks after starting ethionamide and streptomycin for active tuberculosis which worsened by 8 weeks [bilirubin 3.2 mg/dL, AST 1170 U/L, Alk P normal], resolving rapidly on stopping and not recurring subsequently with streptomycin and isoniazid therapy).

Lees AW. Jaundice due to ethionamide. Br J Dis Chest 1963; 57: 158-61. PubMed Citation (3 of 62 patients with tuberculosis treated with ethionamide developed jaundice; all 3 were women, ages 54-72 years with onset 1-4 months after starting ethionamide in combination with either isoniazid or streptomycin [peak bilirubin 3.0-5.8 mg/dL, Alk P 2-3 times ULN], resolving after 1-4 months; one had positive rechallenge with ethionamide; all later tolerated isoniazid without recurrence).

El-Khoury SA, Dunmore LA Jr. Ethionamde and hepatotoxicity: a clinical study. Med Ann Dist Columbia 1964; 33: 15-7. PubMed Citation (Analysis of hepatotoxicity in 40 patients with tuberculosis treated with ethionamide for 4 to 14 months [750 mg daily] in various combinations; 3 patients had BSP elevations, but ALT and AST were normal or minimally elevated and none developed jaundice or Alk P elevations).

Conn HO, Binder HJ, Orr HD. Ethionamide-induced hepatitis. A review with a report of an additional case. Am Rev Respir Dis 1964; 90: 542-52. PubMed Citation (35 year old man with tuberculosis and multiple relapses, developed fatigue 6 weeks after starting ethionamide and cycloserine, improving on stopping and redeveloping symptoms 1 week after restarting [bilirubin 0.7 mg/dL, AST 500, Alk P 6 times ULN], resolving rapidly on stopping ethionamide only; biopsy showed centrolobular necrosis).

Nagasawa J, Mikami R. The side effects of ethionamide with emphasis on its hepatotoxicity. Bull Int Union Tuberc 1964; 35: 139-41. PubMed Citation (Two Japanese women with tuberculosis, ages 34 and 57 years, developed acute liver failure after 1.5 and 7 months of ethionamide therapy, whose autopsies showed massive necrosis; among 50 patients studied prospectively, 36% were said to develop abnormal liver tests, based on serial BSP, icterus index and cephalin-flocculation).

Aquinas SM. Reactions to antituberculosis drugs among Chinese in Hong Kong. Tubercle 1964; 45: 181-7. PubMed Citation (Among 389 patients treated with pyrazinamide and ethionamide for tuberculosis, side effects requiring discontinuation of therapy occurred in 4 [1%], including 3 with jaundice [all attributed to pyrazinamide], one of whom died).

De Voogd A. [Development of a benign catarrhal jaundice in a child subjected to ethionamide treatment]. Rev Tuberc Pneumol (Paris) 1964; 28: 357-60. French. PubMed Citation (5 year old girl with tuberculosis developed jaundice 3 months after starting isoniazid, ethionamide and PAS [ALT 750 U/L; interpreted as viral hepatitis], all three agents being restarted after recovery and patient tolerated final 3 months of therapy).

Schwartz WS. Comparison of ethionamide with isoniazid in original treatment cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. XIV. A report of the Veterans Administration—Armed Forces cooperative study. Am Rev Respir Dis 1966; 93: 685-92. PubMed Citation (Controlled trial of ethionamide vs isoniazid with streptomycin in 236 patients with active tuberculosis; similar efficacy but higher rate of toxicity with ethionamide [39% vs 11% requiring discontinuation], jaundice appearing in 1 [1%] and abnormal AST levels in 10 patients [

10%] on ethionamide).

Byrd RB, Kaplan PD, Gracey DR. Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Chest 1974; 66: 560-7. PubMed Citation (Review of therapy of tuberculosis; ethionamide is discussed as potentially causing hepatitis).

Rossouw JE, Saunders SJ. Hepatic complications of antituberculous therapy. Q J Med 1975; 44: 1-16. PubMed Citation (Summary of hepatic complications among 7492 cases of tuberculosis treated between 1960 and 1973 using various antituberculosis regimens; among 38 cases of hepatitis [0.3%] with 5 deaths from hepatic failure, 3 were associated with ethionamide therapy, specific details on these three were not given).

Pattyn SR, Janssens L, Bourland J, Saylan T, Davies EM, Grillone S, Feracci C. Hepatotoxicity of the combination of rifampin-ethionamide in the treatment of multibacillary leprosy. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 1984; 52: 1-6. PubMed Citation (Among 596 patients with leprosy treated with rifampin and ethionamide [and either dapsone or clofazimine], 23 [4.5%] developed hepatitis arising after 5-186 days [mean 93 days], with mortality of 26% attributed to drug combination).

See A, Hervio P, Bouvry M. [The hepatotoxicity of ethionamide remains a topical subject. Apropos of a case of acute hepatitis]. Ann Gastroenterol Hepatol(Paris) 1986; 22: 129-30. French. PubMed Citation (22 year old man with leprosy and HBsAg carrier state developed jaundice and pruritus 2 years after starting thalidomide, rifampin, ethionamide and clotazimine [bilirubin 6.4 mg/dL, ALT 15 times ULN, Alk P 287 U/L, prothrombin index 60%], recovering within 4-5 months of stopping ethionamide and rifampin).

Donald PR, Schoeman JF, O'Kennedy A. Hepatic toxicity during chemotherapy for severe tuberculosis meningitis. Am J Dis Child 1987; 141: 741-3. PubMed Citation (Among 56 children with tuberculosis meningitis treated with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethionamide, ALT elevations occurred in 72%, but only one child developed jaundice which was attributed to hepatitis A).

Donald PR, Schoeman JF, Van Zyl LE, De Villiers JN, Pretorius M, Springer P. Intensive short course chemotherapy in the management of tuberculous meningitis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1998; 2: 704-11. PubMed Citation (Among 95 children with tuberculous meningitis treated with a 6 month course of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethionamide, 10 developed elevated bilirubin levels during 2-4 weeks of therapy, but these resolved with or without stopping therapy; one child had hepatitis A, and 14% had transient AST or ALT elevations).

American Thoracic Society; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC); Infectious Diseases Society of America. Treatment of tuberculosis. MMWR Recomm Rep 2003; 52 (RR-11): 1-77. PubMed Citation (Recommendations for therapy of tuberculosis including details of drug regimens, side effects, monitoring and optimal approaches to follow up; ethionamide is a second line agent).

Di Perri, Bonora S. Which agents should we use for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis? J Antimicrob Chemother 2004; 54: 593-602. PubMed Citation (Multidrug resistance is defined as an organism resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin; authors rank second line agents as: 1. levofloxacin, aminoglycosides, and capreomycin, 2. ethionamide, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, 3. PAS, 4. cycloserine, 5. amoxicillin/clavulate or ampicillin/sulbactam, 6. clarithromycin, linezolid and clofazimine).

Fajardo TT, Guinto RS, Cellona RV, Abalos RM, Dela Cruz EC, Gelber RH. A clinical trial of ethionamide and prothionamide for treatment of lepromatous leprosy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2006; 74: 457-61. PubMed Citation (Among 46 patients with leprosy treated with either ethionamide or prothionamide for 6 months, elevations in AST [35-88 U/L] occurred in 18 [39%], often resolving despite continuing medication, and only one patient developed jaundice [on prothionamide]).

Chalasani N, Fontana RJ, Bonkovsky HL, Watkins PB, Davern T, Serrano J, Yang H, Rochon J; Drug Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN). Causes, clinical features, and outcomes from a prospective study of drug-induced liver injury in the United States. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 1924-34. PubMed Citation (Among 300 cases of drug induced liver disease in the US collected from 2004 to 2008, no case was attributed to ethionamide).

Ethionamide. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2008; 88: 106-8. PubMed Citation (Brief review of the structure, mechanism of action, resistance, efficacy and safety of ethionamide).

Abubakar I, Moore J, Drobniewski F, Kruijshaar M, Brown T, Yates M, Anderson C, et al. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in the UK: 1995 to 2007. Thorax 2009; 64: 512-5. PubMed Citation (Among 678 extensively drug resistant isolates of tuberculosis reported in the UK between 2005 and 2008, 14% were also resistant to ethionamide).

Reuben A, Koch DG, Lee WM; Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Drug-induced acute liver failure: results of a U. S. multicenter, prospective study. Hepatology 2010; 52: 2065-76. PubMed Citation (Among 1198 patients with acute liver failure enrolled in a US prospective study between 1998 and 2007, 133 were attributed to drug induced liver injury and 25 to antituberculosis agents, including 15 to isoniazid alone [ranking first], 6 to isoniazid combined with other agents, 3 to rifampin and pyrazinamide and 1 to dapsone, but none to ethionamide).

Devarbhavi H, Dierkhising R, Kremers WK, Sandeep MS, Karanth D, Adarsh CK. Single-center experience with drug-induced liver injury from India: causes, outcome, prognosis, and predictors of mortality. Am J Gastroenterol 2010; 105: 2396-404. PubMed Citation (Among 313 cases of drug induced liver injury seen between 1997 and 2008 at a large hospital in Bangalore, India, 181 [58%] were attributed to antituberculosis agents which accounted for 39 of 54 [72%] fatal cases; ethionamide is not specifically mentioned).

Arbex MA, Varella Mde C, Siqueira HR, Mello FA. Antituberculosis drugs: drug interactions, adverse effects, and use in special situations. Part 2: second line drugs. J Bras Pneumol 2010; 36: 641-56. PubMed Citation (Analysis of adverse effects of second line drugs for tuberculosis; states that hepatotoxicity occurs in 4.3% of patients treated with ethionamide, especially in those with liver disease or alcoholism).

C aminero JA, Sotgiu G, Zumla A, Migliori GB. Best drug treatment for multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Lancet Infect Dis 2010; 10: 621-9. PubMed Citation (Mentions that ethionamide is a thioamide and belongs to the second line of antituberculosis medications; no discussion of hepatotoxicity).

http://www. cdc. gov/tb/ (CDC website with up-to-date recommendations on therapy of tuberculosis ).

OTHER REFERENCE LINKS Ethionamide

Metrosa % Gel, Metrosa

METROSA 0.75% GEL

Transcript

UK/0820/001/IB/018 UK Metrosa 0.75% Gel

Package leaflet: Information for the user

Metrosa® 0.75% Gel Metronidazole

Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start using this medicine. - Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again. - If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist. - This medicine has been prescribed for you. Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them, even if their symptoms are the same as yours. - If any of the side effects gets serious, or if you notice any side effects not listed in this leaflet, please tell your doctor or pharmacist. In this leaflet: 1. What Metrosa 0.75% Gel is and what it is used for 2. Before you use Metrosa 0.75% Gel 3. How to use Metrosa 0.75% Gel 4. Possible side effects 5. How to store Metrosa 0.75% Gel 6. Further information

1. What Metrosa 0.75% Gel is and what it is used for Metrosa 0.75% Gel is an antiinflammatory gel to be applied on the skin. Metrosa 0.75% Gel is used for the treatment of rosacea (redness in the face, sometimes together with additional pustules) when the condition suddenly gets worse, and the inflammation becomes troublesome. 1 g Metrosa 0.75% Gel contains 7.5 mg Metronidazole as active substance. Metronidazole acts against some of the fungi and other organisms that can affect the skin, and also, in patients suffering from rosacea, it can relieve the condition by acting against the inflammation which happens when the condition becomes troublesome.

2. Before you use Metrosa 0.75% Gel Do not use Metrosa 0.75% Gel if you are hypersensitive (allergic) to Metronidazole, propylene glycol or any of the other ingredients listed below (see 6. Further Information; What Metrosa 0.75% Gel contains). Take special care with Metrosa 0.75% Gel Do not let the gel come into contact with the eyes and mucous membranes. If eye-contact should occur, wash the gel carefully out of the eyes with warm water. If irritation does occur you should use Metrosa 0.75% Gel less frequently or stop temporarily. If necessary seek medical advice, please. Do not go out into strong sunlight (sunbathing), or use UV lamps (solarium, sunlamps) while you are using this product. Avoid prolonged and unnecessary use of

this medicine. You shouldn`t exceed the recommended duration of therapy. If required, the therapy could be recommended again and be repeated. However you should consider that an interval of 6 weeks in between has to be kept. Use Metrosa 0.75% Gel with care if you suffer or suffered in the past from blood disorders (blood dyscrasia). Use in children and adolescents Metrosa 0.75% Gel should not be used in children and adolescents. Using other medicines Interaction with systemic medication is unlikely because absorption (ability to get through the skin into the body) of metronidazole following cutaneous application of Metrosa 0.75% Gel is low. Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that reactions called disulfiram-like reactions have been reported in a small number of patients taking metronidazole and alcohol concomitantly. These reactions can include nausea, vomiting, flushing of the skin, an accelerated heart rate and shortness of breath. Using Metrosa 0.75% Gel could interfere with drugs used to thin the blood (anticoagulants) such as warfarin and coumarin. Contact your doctor for advice if you are taking medicines to thin your blood, or if you suffer for any other blood disorders. Please tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking or have recently taken any other medicines, including medicines obtained without a prescription. Using Metrosa 0.75% Gel with food and drink Food and meals can be consumed with only one exception: It is best not to take alcohol while using the gel, as there is a very small possibility of a reaction that might make you feel sick or nauseous. Pregnancy and breast-feeding Metrosa 0.75% Gel should be used in pregnancy only if it is clearly needed and recommended by your doctor. Please ask for medical advice. You should ask your doctor for advice if you are breast-feeding whether to discontinue nursing or the drug. Driving and using machines You are allowed to drive and use machines since there are no effects known on the ability to drive. Important information about some of the ingredients of Metrosa 0.75% Gel Propylene glycol may cause skin irritation. Should this occur, stop using the medicine and consult your doctor.

UK/0820/001/IB/018 UK Metrosa 0.75% Gel

3. How to use Metrosa 0.75% Gel Metrosa 0.75% Gel gel is for cutaneous use only. Unless your doctor has told you differently, apply a 2 – 3 cm line of gel to the affected areas and rub it gently into the skin. Use the gel twice each day, for up to four weeks. Always use Metrosa 0.75% Gel exactly as your doctor has told you. You should check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure. If you use more Metrosa 0.75% Gel than you should If you apply too much of the gel, simply wipe off the excess with a clean tissue or remove by washing with warm water. The gel is for use on the skin only. If you, or anyone else, should accidentally swallow a quantity of the gel, tell your doctor at once, or go to the nearest hospital casualty department. If you forget to use Metrosa 0.75% Gel If you forget to use the gel, then use it as soon as you remember, unless the next application is due within about two or three hours, in which case omit the forgotten dose. If you stop using Metrosa 0.75% Gel If you stop using the gel, contact your doctor or pharmacist. If you have any further questions on the use of this product, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

4. Possible side effects Like all medicines, Metrosa 0.75% Gel can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them. The evaluation of side effects is based on the following frequencies: Very common:

More than one patient in 10

1 to 10 patients in 100

1 to 10 patients in 1,000

1 to 10 patients in 10,000

Less than 1 patient in 10,000

Significant side effects, signs to look out for and what to do if you are affected: If you are affected by any of the side effects listed below, stop using Metrosa 0.75% Gel and consult your doctor as quickly as possible. Common: Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Contact dermatitis (skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens), dry skin, erythema (abnormal redness and inflammation of the skin), pruritus (itching), rash (inflammation of the skin with reddening), skin discomfort (burning and stinging), skin irritation, worsening of rosacea (chronic skin condition involving inflammation of the cheeks, nose, chin, forehead or eyelids). General disorders Pain. Uncommon: Nervous System disorders Hypoaesthesia (decreased sensation to normal or painful skin stimulation), paraesthesia (an

abnormal or inappropriate sensation in an organ). Other possible side effects Rare: Gastrointestinal disorders Metallic taste, nausea If any of the side effects gets serious, or if you notice any side effects not listed in this leaflet, please tell your doctor or pharmacist.

5. How to store Metrosa 0.75% Gel Keep out of the reach and sight of children. Do not use Metrosa 0.75% Gel after the expiry date which is stated on the tube. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month. Do not refrigerate or freeze the gel. Use within 3 months of first opening.

6. Further information What Metrosa 0.75% Gel contains – The active substance is Metronidazole 1 g of gel contains 7.5 mg Metronidazole – The other ingredients are phenoxyethanol (Ph. Eur.), propylene glycol, hypromellose (E 464) and purified water. What Metrosa 0.75% Gel looks like and contents of the pack It is made available as a collapsible aluminium tube containing 25 g, 30 g, 40 g or 50 g of the gel (not all pack sizes will be market at time). Marketing Authorisation Holder and Manufacturer Dr. August Wolff GmbH & Co. KG Arzneimittel Sudbrackstra?e 56, 33611 Bielefeld, GERMANY Phone: +49 521 8808-05 Fax: +49 521 8808-334 E-Mail: info@wolff-arzneimittel. de For any information about this medicine, please contact the local representative of the Marketing Authorisation Holder: m & a pharmachem ltd Allenby Laboratories, Wigan Road, Westhoughton, Bolton BL5 2AL Telephone 01942 816184 This medicinal product is authorised in the Member States of the EEA under the following names: Estonia. Metrosa 7,5 mg/g geel Germany. MetroGalen 7,5 mg/g Gel Hungary. Metrosa 7,5 mg/g gel Latvia. Metrosa 7,5 mg/g gels Lithuania. Metrosa 7,5 mg/g gelis Austria, Belgium. Nidazea 7,5 mg/g Gel The Netherlands. Metrosa 7,5 mg/g, gel United Kingdom. Metrosa 0.75% Gel This leaflet was last revised in 10/2014

Source: Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided here is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. This information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Zesger, Zesger

Zesger - (Lisinopril)

Zesger (Lisinopril) can be used for the following conditions:

To treat high blood pressure (hypertension).

To treat heart failure.

If you have recently had a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

To treat kidney problems caused by Type II diabetes in people with high blood pressure.

Why have I been prescribed Zesger ?

Zesger (Lisinopril) can be used for the following conditions:

To treat high blood pressure (hypertension).

To treat heart failure.

If you have recently had a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

To treat kidney problems caused by Type II diabetes in people with high blood pressure.

How does it work?

Zesger belongs to the group of medicines called Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors. ACE inhibitors work by helping to widen your blood vessels, which then make it easier for your heart to pump blood through them.

When and how do I take it?

Swallow the tablet with a drink of water. Try to take your tablets at the same time each day. It does not matter if you take Zesger before or after food.

Keep taking Zesger for as long as your doctor tells you to, it is a long term treatment. It is important to keep taking Zesger every day.

Taking your first dose:

Take special care when you have your first dose of Zesger or if your dose is increased. It may cause a greater fall in blood pressure than later doses. This may make you feel dizzy or light-headed. If this happens, it may help to lie down. If you are concerned, please talk to your doctor as soon as possible.

What’s the dose?

Your dose depends on your medical condition and whether you are taking any other medicines. Your doctor will tell you how many tablets to take each day. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are unsure.

For high blood pressure:

The usual starting dose is 10 mg once a day.

The usual long-term dose is 20 mg once a day.

For heart failure:

The usual starting dose is 2.5 mg once a day.

The long-term dose is 5 to 35 mg once a day.

After a heart attack:

The usual starting dose is 5 mg within 24 hours of your attack and 5 mg one day later.

The usual long-term dose is 10 mg once a day.

For kidney problems caused by diabetes:

The usual dose is either 10 mg or 20 mg once a day.

If you are elderly, have kidney problems or are taking diuretic medicines your doctor may give you a lower dose than the usual dose.

Could it interact with other tablets?

Tell your doctor if you are taking, or have recently taken, any other medicines. This includes medicines that you buy without a prescription. This is because Zesger can affect the way some medicines work and some medicines can have an effect on Zesger.

In particular, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking any of the following medicines:

Other medicines to help lower your blood pressure.

Water tablets (diuretic medicines).

Medicines to break up blood clots (usually given in hospital).

Beta-blocker medicines, such as atenolol and propranolol.

Nitrate medicines (for heart problems).

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used to treat pain and arthritis.

Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic acid), if you are taking more than 3 grams each day.

Medicines for depression and for mental problems, including lithium.

Potassium tablets or salt substitutes that have potassium in them.

Insulin or medicines that you take by mouth for diabetes.

Medicines used to treat asthma.

Medicines to treat nose or sinus congestion or other cold remedies (including those you can buy in the pharmacy).

Medicines to suppress the body’s immune response (immunosuppressants).

Allopurinol (for gout).

Procainamide (for heart beat problems).

Medicines that contain gold, such as sodium aurothiomalate, which may be given to you as an injection.

What are the possible risks or side-effects?

If you experience any of the following reactions, stop taking Zesger and see your doctor immediately:

Severe allergic reactions. The signs may include sudden onset of:

Swelling of your face, lips, tongue or throat. This may make it difficult to swallow.

Severe or sudden swelling of your hands, feet and ankles.

Difficulty breathing.

Severe itching of the skin (with raised lumps).

Severe skin disorders, like a sudden, unexpected rash or burning, red or peeling skin (very rare, affects less than 1 user in 10,000).

An infection with symptoms such as fever and serious deterioration of your general condition, or fever with local infection symptoms such as sore throat/pharynx/mouth or urinary problems (very rare, affects less than 1 user in 10,000).

Other possible side effects:

Common (affects 1 to 10 users in 100)

Headache.

Feeling dizzy or light-headed, especially if you stand up quickly.

Diarrhoea.

A dry cough that does not go away.

Being sick (vomiting

Kidney problems (shown in a blood test).

While taking Zesger, if you develop any of the following symptoms you should let you doctor know immediately:

jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes).

a dry cough which is persistent for a long time.

Can I drink alcohol while taking it?

If you drink alcohol while taking Zesger, it may cause your blood pressure to drop and you may experience dizziness, light-headedness or faintness. You should also keep your alcohol intake to a minimum.

What if I’m pregnant/breastfeeding?

The use of ACE inhibitors is not recommended during the first trimester of pregnancy. They cannot be used during the second and third trimester of pregnancy.

The use of Zesger is not recommended while breast feeding.

If you have any more questions please ask your Pharmacist.

Remember to keep all medicines out of reach of children Please Note: We have made every effort to ensure that the content of this information sheet is correct at time of publish, but remember that information about drugs may change. This sheet does not list all the uses and side-effects associated with this drug. For full details please see the drug information leaflet which comes with your medicine. Your doctor will assess your medical circumstances and draw your attention to any information or side-effects which may be relevant in your particular case.

Alveogyl Alvogyl, Septodont Alvogyl, Alvogyl Septodont, Impregnated Alveolar Dressing, Septodont Alv

Description

Reviews (1)

Septodont Alvogyl, Alveogyl, Septodont, Eugenol Impregnated Alveolar Dressing

Alveogyl is a paste for alveolar surgical dressing after tooth extractions, with Penghawar fibers. The paste promotes haemostasis by compression and protects from superinfection (alveolar osteitis) by its barrier effect. Introduced into the socket. Alveogyl easily adheres to the alveolus due to its fibrous consistency. Assisted by the patients tongue movements, it gradually self eliminates without an intervention by the practitioner as the normal healing of the wound takes place. Alveogyl is very easy to apply and requires no special attention from the practitioner other than observation of the healing process.

Indications :-

Dry socket treatment.

Post extraction dressing.

Features & Benefits :-

Quick and easy one-step treatment.

Rapidly eliminates pain and provides a soothing effect throughout the healing process.

Fibrous consistency allows for easy filling of the socket with good adherence during the healing process.

Eugenol ingrediants allow for analgesic action on the alveolar tissues.

Contains iodoform for effective anti-microbial action.

Self exfoliates with the patient’s tongue and lips movements.

Contents :-

New Alveogyl by Septodont. Contents . 10 GMs Jar

FOR any enquiry regarding product(s) / item(s) or delivery procedure please feel free to contact sales@souldent. com

Alvogyl, Alveogyl, Septodont, Eugenol Impregnated Alveolar Dressing

Marphage, Marphage

Diabetes - Marphage (Brand name: metformin)

Metformin is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other anti-diabetic medicines.

Use Metformin as directed by your doctor.

Take Metformin by mouth with food. Take Metformin on a regular schedule to get the most benefit from it. Taking Metformin at the same time each day will help you remember to take it. Continue taking Metformin even if you feel good. Do not miss any doses. Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about its usage.

Drug Class and Mechanism

Metformin is a biguanide antidiabetic. It works by decreasing the amount of sugar that the liver produces and the intestines absorb. It also helps to make your body more sensitive to the insulin that you naturally produce.

If you miss a dose of Metformin and are using it regularly, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Store Metformin between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Metformin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do not use Metformin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Metformin; you have congestive heart failure that is treated by medicine; you have a severe infection, low blood oxygen levels, kidney or liver problems, high blood ketone or acid levels (e. g. diabetic ketoacidosis), or severe dehydration; you have had a stroke or a recent heart attack, or you are in shock; you are 80 years old or older and have not had a kidney function test; you will be having surgery or certain lab procedures. Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Important : Dizziness may occur while you are taking Metformin. This effect may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Metformin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it. Follow the diet and exercise program given to you by your health care provider. Do not drink large amounts of alcohol while you use Metformin. Talk to your doctor or health care provider before you drink alcohol while you use Metformin. Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Metformin before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery. Be careful not to become dehydrated, especially during hot weather or while you are being active. Dehydration may increase the risk of Metformin 's side effects. Carry an ID card at all times that says you have diabetes. Check your blood sugar levels as directed by your doctor. If they are often higher or lower than they should be and you take Metformin exactly as prescribed, tell your doctor. This medicine does not usually lower your blood sugar levels. Low blood sugar may be more likely to occur if you skip a meal, exercise heavily, or drink alcohol. It may also be more likely if you take Metformin along with certain medicines for diabetes (e. g. sulfonylureas, insulin). It is a good idea to carry a reliable source of glucose (e. g. tablets or gel) to treat low blood sugar. If this is not available, you should eat or drink a quick source of sugar like table sugar, honey, candy, orange juice, or non-diet soda. This will raise your blood sugar level quickly. Tell your doctor right away if this happens. To prevent low blood sugar, eat meals at the same time each day and do not skip meals. Fever, infection, injury, or surgery may increase your risk for high or low blood sugar levels. If any of these occur, check your blood sugar closely and tell your doctor right away. Metformin may commonly cause stomach upset, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea at the beginning of treatment. If you develop unusual or unexpected stomach problems, or if you develop stomach problems later during treatment, contact your doctor at once. This may be a sign of lactic acidosis. Lab tests, including kidney function, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and blood counts, may be performed while you use Metformin. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments. Use Metformin with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects. Low blood sugar levels may also be more difficult to recognize in the elderly. Metformin should not be used in children younger than 10 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Metformin while you are pregnant. It is not known if Metformin is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Metformin.

Possible Side Effects

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Diarrhea; gas; headache; indigestion; nausea; stomach upset; temporary metallic taste; vomiting. Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); chest pain or discomfort; dizziness or lightheadedness; fast or difficult breathing; feeling of being unusually cold; fever, chills, or persistent sore throat; general feeling of being unwell; muscle pain or weakness; slow or irregular heartbeat; unusual drowsiness; unusual or persistent stomach pain or discomfort; unusual tiredness or weakness.

If you have any questions about Hydrochlorothiazide, please talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other health care provider. Metformin is to be used only by the patient for whom it is prescribed. Do not share it with other people.

Metformin is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other anti-diabetic medicines.

Use Metformin as directed by your doctor.

Take Metformin by mouth with food. Take Metformin on a regular schedule to get the most benefit from it. Taking Metformin at the same time each day will help you remember to take it. Continue taking Metformin even if you feel good. Do not miss any doses. Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about its usage.

Drug Class and Mechanism

Metformin is a biguanide antidiabetic. It works by decreasing the amount of sugar that the liver produces and the intestines absorb. It also helps to make your body more sensitive to the insulin that you naturally produce.

If you miss a dose of Metformin and are using it regularly, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Store Metformin between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Metformin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do not use Metformin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Metformin; you have congestive heart failure that is treated by medicine; you have a severe infection, low blood oxygen levels, kidney or liver problems, high blood ketone or acid levels (e. g. diabetic ketoacidosis), or severe dehydration; you have had a stroke or a recent heart attack, or you are in shock; you are 80 years old or older and have not had a kidney function test; you will be having surgery or certain lab procedures. Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Important : Dizziness may occur while you are taking Metformin. This effect may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Metformin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it. Follow the diet and exercise program given to you by your health care provider. Do not drink large amounts of alcohol while you use Metformin. Talk to your doctor or health care provider before you drink alcohol while you use Metformin. Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Metformin before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery. Be careful not to become dehydrated, especially during hot weather or while you are being active. Dehydration may increase the risk of Metformin 's side effects. Carry an ID card at all times that says you have diabetes. Check your blood sugar levels as directed by your doctor. If they are often higher or lower than they should be and you take Metformin exactly as prescribed, tell your doctor. This medicine does not usually lower your blood sugar levels. Low blood sugar may be more likely to occur if you skip a meal, exercise heavily, or drink alcohol. It may also be more likely if you take Metformin along with certain medicines for diabetes (e. g. sulfonylureas, insulin). It is a good idea to carry a reliable source of glucose (e. g. tablets or gel) to treat low blood sugar. If this is not available, you should eat or drink a quick source of sugar like table sugar, honey, candy, orange juice, or non-diet soda. This will raise your blood sugar level quickly. Tell your doctor right away if this happens. To prevent low blood sugar, eat meals at the same time each day and do not skip meals. Fever, infection, injury, or surgery may increase your risk for high or low blood sugar levels. If any of these occur, check your blood sugar closely and tell your doctor right away. Metformin may commonly cause stomach upset, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea at the beginning of treatment. If you develop unusual or unexpected stomach problems, or if you develop stomach problems later during treatment, contact your doctor at once. This may be a sign of lactic acidosis. Lab tests, including kidney function, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and blood counts, may be performed while you use Metformin. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments. Use Metformin with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects. Low blood sugar levels may also be more difficult to recognize in the elderly. Metformin should not be used in children younger than 10 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Metformin while you are pregnant. It is not known if Metformin is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Metformin.

Possible Side Effects

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Diarrhea; gas; headache; indigestion; nausea; stomach upset; temporary metallic taste; vomiting. Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); chest pain or discomfort; dizziness or lightheadedness; fast or difficult breathing; feeling of being unusually cold; fever, chills, or persistent sore throat; general feeling of being unwell; muscle pain or weakness; slow or irregular heartbeat; unusual drowsiness; unusual or persistent stomach pain or discomfort; unusual tiredness or weakness.

If you have any questions about Hydrochlorothiazide, please talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other health care provider. Metformin is to be used only by the patient for whom it is prescribed. Do not share it with other people.

Metformin

Click for further information on drug naming conventions and International Nonproprietary Names .

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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Time-Resolved Magnetic Sensing With Electronic Spins In Diamond Nature Communications Nature Researc

Time-resolved magnetic sensing with electronic spins in diamond

Article tools

Abstract

Quantum probes can measure time-varying fields with high sensitivity and spatial resolution, enabling the study of biological, material and physical phenomena at the nanometre scale. In particular, nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond have recently emerged as promising sensors of magnetic and electric fields. Although coherent control techniques have measured the amplitude of constant or oscillating fields, these techniques are not suitable for measuring time-varying fields with unknown dynamics. Here we introduce a coherent acquisition method to accurately reconstruct the temporal profile of time-varying fields using Walsh sequences. These decoupling sequences act as digital filters that efficiently extract spectral coefficients while suppressing decoherence, thus providing improved sensitivity over existing strategies. We experimentally reconstruct the magnetic field radiated by a physical model of a neuron using a single electronic spin in diamond and discuss practical applications. These results will be useful to implement time-resolved magnetic sensing with quantum probes at the nanometre scale.

Subject terms:

At a glance

Figures

( a ) A single nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond, optically initialized and read out by confocal microscopy, is manipulated with coherent control sequences to measure the arbitrary profile of time-varying magnetic fields radiated by a coplanar waveguide under ambient conditions. ( b ) Coherent control sequences, acting as digital filters on the evolution of the qubit sensor, extract information about time-varying fields. ( c ) An N - point functional approximation of the field is obtained by sampling the field with a set of N digital filters taken from the Walsh basis, which contain some known set of decoupling sequences such as the even-parity Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequences 5 ( w 2 n ) and the odd-parity periodic dynamical decoupling sequences 7 ( w 2 n –1 ).

( a ) Measured signal as a function of the amplitude of a cosine magnetic field for different Walsh sequences with m ? - pulses. Here ? e =2 ? ·28 Hz nT ?1 is the gyromagnetic ratio of the NV electronic spin. The m - th Walsh coefficient is proportional to the slope of S m ( b ) at the origin. ( b ) Measured Walsh spectrum up to fourth order ( N =2 4 ) of sine and cosine magnetic fields b ( t )= b sin (2 ??t +?) with frequency ? =100 kHz and phases ?? ? /2> over an acquisition period T =1/ ? =10 s. Error bars correspond to 95% confidence intervals on the Walsh coefficients associated with the fit of the measured signal. ( c ) The reconstructed fields (filled squares) are 16-point piecewise-constant approximations to the expected fields (solid lines, not a fit). Error bars correspond to the amplitude uncertainty of the reconstructed field obtained by propagation of the errors on the estimates of the uncorrelated Walsh coefficients.

( a ) Measured Walsh spectrum up to fifth order ( N =2 5 ) of a bichromatic magnetic field b ( t )= b [ a 1 sin (2 ?? 1 t +? 1 )+ a 2 sin (2 ?? 2 t +? 2 )] with a 1 =3/10, a 2 =1/5, ? 1 =100 kHz, ? 1 =250 kHz, ? 1 =?0.0741, and ? 2 =?1.9686. The zero-th Walsh coefficient corresponds to a static field offset that was neglected. ( b ) The reconstructed field (filled squares) is a 32-point approximation to the expected field (solid line, not a fit). Error bars correspond to the amplitude uncertainty of the reconstructed field obtained by propagation of the errors on the estimates of the uncorrelated Walsh coefficients.

( a ) Measured Walsh spectrum up to fifth order ( N =2 5 ) of the magnetic field radiated by a skew normal impulse flowing through the physical model of a neuron. The Walsh coefficients were obtained by fixing the amplitude of the field and sweeping the phase of the last read-out ? /2-pulse. The acquisition time for measuring all the Walsh coefficients was less than 4 h. Error bars correspond to 95% confidence intervals on the Walsh coefficients associated with the fit of the measured signal. ( b ) The reconstructed field (filled squares) is a 32-point approximation to the expected field (solid line, not a fit). Error bars correspond to the amplitude uncertainty of the reconstructed field obtained by propagation of the errors on the estimates of the uncorrelated Walsh coefficients.

Introduction

Measurements of weak electric and magnetic fields at the nanometre scale are indispensable in many areas, ranging from materials science to fundamental physics and biomedical science. In many applications, much of the information about the underlying phenomena is contained in the dynamics of the field. While novel quantum probes promise to achieve the required combination of high sensitivity and spatial resolution, their application to efficiently mapping the temporal profile of the field is still a challenge.

Quantum estimation techniques 1. 2 can be used to measure time-varying fields by monitoring the shift in the resonance energy of a qubit sensor, for example, via Ramsey interferometry. The qubit sensor, first prepared in an equal superposition of its eigenstates, accumulates a phase . where ? is the strength of the interaction with the time-varying field b ( t ) during the acquisition period T . The dynamics of the field could be mapped by measuring the quantum phase over successive, increasing acquisition periods 3 or sequential small acquisition steps 4 ; however, these protocols are inefficient at sampling and reconstructing the field, as the former involves a deconvolution problem, while both are limited by short coherence times ( T 2 *) that bound the measurement sensitivity. Decoupling sequences 5. 6. 7 could be used to increase the coherence time 8. 9. 10. 11. but their application would result in a non-trivial encoding of the dynamics of the field onto the phase of the qubit sensor 12. 13. 14. 15. 16 .

Instead, here we propose to reconstruct the temporal profile of time-varying fields by using a set of digital filters, implemented with coherent control sequences over the whole acquisition period T . that simultaneously extract information about the dynamics of the field and protect against dephasing noise. In particular, we use control sequences (Fig. 1 ) associated with the Walsh functions 17. which form a complete orthonormal basis of digital filters and are easily implementable experimentally.

Figure 1: Walsh reconstruction protocol.

( a ) A single nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond, optically initialized and read out by confocal microscopy, is manipulated with coherent control sequences to measure the arbitrary profile of time-varying magnetic fields radiated by a coplanar waveguide under ambient conditions. ( b ) Coherent control sequences, acting as digital filters on the evolution of the qubit sensor, extract information about time-varying fields. ( c ) An N - point functional approximation of the field is obtained by sampling the field with a set of N digital filters taken from the Walsh basis, which contain some known set of decoupling sequences such as the even-parity Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequences 5 ( w 2 n ) and the odd-parity periodic dynamical decoupling sequences 7 ( w 2 n –1 ).

The Walsh reconstruction method can be applied to estimate various time-varying parameters via coherent control of any quantum probe. In particular, we show that the phase acquired by a qubit sensor modulated with Walsh decoupling sequences is proportional to the Walsh transform of the field. This simplifies the problem of spectral sampling and reconstruction of time-varying fields by identifying the sequency domain as the natural description for dynamically modulated quantum systems. At the same time, the Walsh reconstruction method provides a solution to the problem of monitoring a time-dependent parameter with a quantum probe, which cannot be in general achieved via continuous tracking due to the destructive nature of quantum measurements. In addition, because the Walsh reconstruction method achieves dynamical decoupling of the quantum probe, it further yields a significant improvement in coherence time and sensitivity over sequential acquisition techniques. These characteristics and the fact that the Walsh reconstruction method can be combined with data compression 18 and compressive sensing 19. 20 provide clear advantages over prior reconstruction techniques 3. 4. 21. 22 .

Results

Walsh reconstruction method

The Walsh reconstruction method relies on the Walsh functions (Supplementary Fig. 1 ), which are a family of piecewise-constant functions taking binary values, constructed from products of square waves, and forming a complete orthonormal basis of digital filters, analogous to the Fourier basis of sine and cosine functions. The Walsh functions are usually described in a variety of labelling conventions, including the sequency ordering that counts the number of sign inversions or ‘switchings’ of each Walsh function. The Walsh sequences are easily implemented experimentally by applying ? - pulses at the switching times of the Walsh functions; these sequences are therefore decoupling sequences 23. 24. which include the well-known Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill 5 and periodic dynamical decoupling sequences 7 .

Because a ? - pulse effectively reverses the evolution of the qubit sensor, control sequences of ? - pulses act as digital filters that sequentially switch the sign of the evolution between ±1. If w m ( t / T ) is the digital filter created by applying m control ? - pulses at the zero crossings of the m - th Walsh function, the normalized phase acquired by the qubit sensor is

Here is the m - th Walsh coefficient defined as the Walsh transform of b ( t ) evaluated at sequence number (sequency) m . This identifies the sequency domain as the natural description for digitally modulated quantum systems. Indeed, equation (1) implies a duality between the Walsh transform and the dynamical phase acquired by the qubit sensor under digital modulation, which allows for efficient sampling of time-varying fields in the sequency domain and direct reconstruction in the time domain via linear inversion.

Successive measurements with the first N Walsh sequences give a set of N Walsh coefficients that can be used to reconstruct an N - point functional approximation to the field

Equation (2) is the inverse Walsh transform of order N . which gives the best least-squares Walsh approximation to b ( t ). With few assumptions or prior knowledge about the dynamics of the field, the reconstruction can be shown to be accurate with quantifiable truncation errors and convergence criteria 25. 26 .

Although the signal is encoded on the phase of a quantum probe in a different way (via decoupling sequences), the Walsh reconstruction method shares similarities with classical Hadamard encoding techniques in data compression, digital signal processing, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging 27. 28. 29. All of these techniques could easily be combined to achieve both spatial and temporal imaging of magnetic fields at the nanometre scale, given the availability of gradient fields and frequency-selective pulses.

Walsh reconstruction of time-varying fields

We experimentally demonstrate the Walsh reconstruction method by measuring increasingly complex time-varying magnetic fields. We used a single NV centre in an isotopically purified diamond sample as the qubit sensor (details about the experimental setup can be found in Methods). NV centres in diamond (Fig. 1a ) have recently emerged as promising sensors for magnetic 30. 31. 32 and electric 33 fields, rotations 34. 35 and temperature 36. 37. 38. These sensors are ideal for nanoscale imaging of living biological systems 39. 40. 41 due to their low cytotoxicity, surface functionalizations 42. optical trapping capability 43. 44 and long coherence time under ambient conditions 3. A single NV centre is optically initialized and read out by confocal microscopy under ambient conditions. A coplanar waveguide delivers both resonant microwave pulses and off-resonant time-varying magnetic fields produced by an arbitrary waveform generator.

We first reconstructed monochromatic sinusoidal fields, b ( t )= b sin (2 ??t + ? ), by measuring the Walsh spectrum up to fourth order ( N =2 4 ). The m - th Walsh coefficient of the normalized field f ( t )= b ( t )/ b was obtained by sweeping the amplitude of the field and measuring the slope of the signal at the origin (Fig. 2a and Supplementary Fig. 2 ). Figure 2b shows the measured non-zero Walsh coefficients of the Walsh spectrum. As shown in Fig. 2c. the 16-point reconstructed fields are in good agreement with the expected fields. We note that, contrary to other methods previously used for a. c. magnetometry, the Walsh reconstruction method is phase selective, as it discriminates between time-varying fields with the same frequency but different phase.

Figure 2: Walsh reconstruction of sinusoidal fields.

( a ) Measured signal as a function of the amplitude of a cosine magnetic field for different Walsh sequences with m ? - pulses. Here ? e =2 ? ·28 Hz nT ?1 is the gyromagnetic ratio of the NV electronic spin. The m - th Walsh coefficient is proportional to the slope of S m ( b ) at the origin. ( b ) Measured Walsh spectrum up to fourth order ( N =2 4 ) of sine and cosine magnetic fields b ( t )= b sin (2 ??t +?) with frequency ? =100 kHz and phases ?? ? /2> over an acquisition period T =1/ ? =10 s. Error bars correspond to 95% confidence intervals on the Walsh coefficients associated with the fit of the measured signal. ( c ) The reconstructed fields (filled squares) are 16-point piecewise-constant approximations to the expected fields (solid lines, not a fit). Error bars correspond to the amplitude uncertainty of the reconstructed field obtained by propagation of the errors on the estimates of the uncorrelated Walsh coefficients.

We further reconstructed a bichromatic field b ( t )= b [ a 1 sin (2 ?? 1 t + ? 1 )+ a 2 sin (2 ?? 2 t + ? 2 )]. Figure 3a shows the measured Walsh spectrum up to fifth order ( N =2 5 ). As shown in Fig. 3b. the 32-point reconstructed field agrees with the expected field, which demonstrates the accuracy of the Walsh reconstruction method (Supplementary Fig. 3 ). In contrast, sampling the field with an incomplete set of digital filters, such as the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill and periodic dynamical decoupling sequences, extracts only partial information about the dynamics of the field (Supplementary Fig. 4 ). By linearity of the Walsh transform, the Walsh reconstruction method applies to any polychromatic field (and by extension to any time-varying field), whose frequency spectrum lies in the acquisition bandwidth [1/ T . 1/ ? ] set by the coherence time T ? T 2 and the maximum sampling time ? = T / N . which is in turn limited by the finite duration of the control ? - pulses.

Figure 3: Walsh reconstruction of a bichromatic field.

( a ) Measured Walsh spectrum up to fifth order ( N =2 5 ) of a bichromatic magnetic field b ( t )= b [ a 1 sin (2 ?? 1 t +? 1 )+ a 2 sin (2 ?? 2 t +? 2 )] with a 1 =3/10, a 2 =1/5, ? 1 =100 kHz, ? 1 =250 kHz, ? 1 =?0.0741, and ? 2 =?1.9686. The zero-th Walsh coefficient corresponds to a static field offset that was neglected. ( b ) The reconstructed field (filled squares) is a 32-point approximation to the expected field (solid line, not a fit). Error bars correspond to the amplitude uncertainty of the reconstructed field obtained by propagation of the errors on the estimates of the uncorrelated Walsh coefficients.

Performance of the Walsh reconstruction method

The performance of the Walsh reconstruction method is determined by the reconstruction error e N and the measurement sensitivity ? N . The least-squares reconstruction error due to truncation of the Walsh spectrum up to N =2 n coefficients is bounded by e N ? (ref. 26 ) and vanishes to zero as N tends to infinity (as needed for perfect reconstruction). This implies that although the resources grow exponentially with n . the error converges exponentially quickly to zero, and only a finite number of coefficients is needed to accurately reconstruct the field.

The measurement sensitivity of the m - th Walsh sequence in M measurements,

gives the minimum field amplitude, ?b m = ? m / =? S m /(|? S m /? b m | ), that can be measured with fixed resources. Here ? e =2 ? ·28 Hz nT ?1 is the gyromagnetic ratio of the NV electronic spin and C accounts for inefficient photon collection and finite contrast due to spin-state mixing during optical measurements 30. 45 .

The sensitivity is further degraded by the decay of the signal visibility, ?1, where T 2 ( m ) and p ( m ) characterize the decoherence of the qubit sensor during the m - th Walsh sequence in the presence of a specific noise environment. In general, T 2 ( m )> T 2 . as the Walsh sequences suppress dephasing noise and extend coherence times by many orders of magnitude 23. 24. The sensitivity ? m is thus the ratio between a field-independent factor and the Walsh coefficient for the particular temporal profile of the measured field.

The sensitivity formula of equation (3) can be used to identify the Walsh sequences that extract the most information about the amplitude of time-varying fields in the presence of noise. In analogy to a. c. magnetometry 30. which measures the amplitude of sinusoidal fields, we refer to the problem of performing parameter estimation of the amplitude of an arbitrary waveform as arbitrary waveform (a. w.) magnetometry. Indeed, if the dynamics of the field is known, the Walsh spectrum can be precomputed to identify the Walsh sequence that offers the best sensitivity. Because different Walsh sequences have different noise suppression performances 18. 23. the choice of the most sensitive Walsh sequence involves a trade-off between large Walsh coefficients and long coherence times.

Measurements with an ensemble of N NV NV centres will improve the sensitivity by 1/ . such that the sensitivity per unit volume will scale as 1/ . where n NV is the density of NV centres. Previous studies have demonstrated ? 1 ?4 nT Hz ?1/2 for a single NV centre in an isotopically engineered diamond 3 and ? 1 ?0.1 nT Hz ?1/2 for an ensemble of NV centres 46. with expected improvement down to ? 1 ?0.2 nT ?m 3/2 Hz ?1/2 .

The amplitude resolution of the Walsh reconstruction method, . gives the smallest variation of the reconstructed field that can be measured from the Walsh spectrum of order N . If each Walsh coefficient is obtained from M measurements over the acquisition period N . the measurement sensitivity of the Walsh reconstruction method, ? N ? ?b N . is

The Walsh reconstruction method provides a gain in sensitivity of over sequential measurement techniques that perform N successive amplitude measurements over small time intervals of length . Indeed, Walsh sequences exploit the long coherence time under dynamical decoupling to reduce the number of measurements, and thus the associated shot noise. This corresponds to a decrease by a factor of N of the total acquisition time needed to reach the same amplitude resolution or an improvement by a factor of of the amplitude resolution at fixed total acquisition time (see Supplementary Discussion ). Thus, unless the signal can only be triggered once, in which case one should use an ensemble of quantum probes to perform measurements in small time steps, the Walsh reconstruction method outperforms sequential measurements, which is an important step towards quantum-optimized waveform reconstruction 47 .

The measurement sensitivity ? N combines with the reconstruction error e N to determine the accuracy of the Walsh reconstruction method. If some small coefficients cannot be resolved due to low signal visibility, the increase in reconstruction error can be analytically quantified using data compression results 18. In the same way, the acquisition time can be reduced by sampling only the most significant coefficients and discarding other negligible coefficients. Furthermore, if the field is sparse in some known basis, which is often the case, a logarithmic scaling in resources can be achieved by using compressed sensing methods based on convex optimization algorithms 19. 20. an advantage that is not shared by other sequential acquisition protocols 3. 4. 21 .

Discussion

The Walsh reconstruction method is readily applicable to measure time-varying parameters in a variety of physical systems, including light shift spectroscopy with trapped ions 16 ; magnetometry with single spins in semiconductors 31. 48. 49 or quantum dots 50 ; and measurements of electric fields 33 or temperature 36. 37. 38 with NV centres in diamond. Other promising applications include magnetic resonance spectroscopy of spins extrinsic to the diamond lattice 51. 52. measurements of the dynamics of magnetic nanostructures 53 or magnetic vortices in nanodisk chains 54 .

An active research direction for quantum sensors is measuring biological 41. 55. 56 and neuronal 4. 57 activity at the nanometre scale. Reference 4 provided compelling evidence about the feasibility of measuring the magnetic fields radiated by action potentials flowing through single neurons. They calculated magnetic field strengths of the order of 10 nT at distance up to 100 nm from a morphologically reconstructed hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron. These fields are within experimental reach using small ensembles of shallow-implanted NV centres, for example, located less than 10 nm below the diamond surface 58. 59. given improvements in collection efficiency 46. 60 and coherence times 61 .

The Walsh reconstruction method may also prove useful in neuroscience, alongside existing electrical activity recording techniques and other emerging neuroimaging modalities, to monitor the weak magnetic activity of neuronal cells at subcellular spatial resolution, as needed to better understand neurophysiology and map neuronal circuits. To achieve a repeatable signal and reduce stochastic fluctuations during averaging, sequential trains of action potentials could be evoked with conventional electrophysiological techniques, photo-stimulation methods or current injection through underlying nanowire electrode arrays 62. Technical issues associated with maintaing the stability of the system over long time scale still remain to be solved.

As a proof-of-principle experiment, we measured the magnetic field radiated by a physical model of a neuron undergoing an action potential ?( t ) approximated by a skew normal impulse 63. 64. 65. Due to its linear response in the kHz regime (Supplementary Fig. 5 ), our coplanar waveguide acts as the physical model of a neuron (see Supplementary Methods ), with the radiated magnetic field given by the derivative of the electric field 66. 67. b ( t )= d ?( t )/ dt (Supplementary Fig. 6 ).

The Walsh coefficients were measured by fixing the amplitude of the field and sweeping the phase of the last read-out pulse to reconstruct the absolute field b ( t ) rather than the normalized field f ( t ). This protocol is in general applicable when the field amplitude is not under experimental control. Figure 4a shows the measured Walsh spectrum up to fifth order ( N =2 5 ). As shown in Fig. 4b. the 32-point reconstructed field is in good agreement with the expected field. Although neuronal fields are typically much smaller than in our proof-of-principle experiment with a single NV centre, they could be measured with shallow-implanted single NVs 51. 52. 58. 59 or small ensembles of NV centres 41. 46. 57 .

Figure 4: Walsh reconstruction of an arbitrary waveform.

( a ) Measured Walsh spectrum up to fifth order ( N =2 5 ) of the magnetic field radiated by a skew normal impulse flowing through the physical model of a neuron. The Walsh coefficients were obtained by fixing the amplitude of the field and sweeping the phase of the last read-out ? /2-pulse. The acquisition time for measuring all the Walsh coefficients was less than 4 h. Error bars correspond to 95% confidence intervals on the Walsh coefficients associated with the fit of the measured signal. ( b ) The reconstructed field (filled squares) is a 32-point approximation to the expected field (solid line, not a fit). Error bars correspond to the amplitude uncertainty of the reconstructed field obtained by propagation of the errors on the estimates of the uncorrelated Walsh coefficients.

In conclusion, we used control sequences acting as digital filters on the evolution of a single NV electronic spin to efficiently sample and accurately reconstruct the arbitrary profile of time-varying fields with quantifiable errors and formal convergence criteria. The Walsh reconstruction method can easily be used together with spatial encoding techniques to achieve both spatial and temporal imaging of magnetic fields. In addition, this method is compatible with data compression techniques 18 and compressed sensing algorithms 19. 20 to achieve a significant reduction in resources, acquisition time and reconstruction errors. Extension of the Walsh reconstruction method to stochastic fields could simplify the problem of spectral density estimation by removing the need for functional approximations or deconvolution algorithms 13. 15. 68. This would enable, for example, in vivo monitoring of cellular functions associated with cell membrane ion channel processes 55. 56. Finally, this work connects with other fields in which the Walsh functions have recently attracted attention, for example, in quantum simulation to construct efficient circuits for diagonal unitaries 69. in quantum error suppression 23. 24. and in quantum control theory to improve the fidelity of two-qubit entangling gates on trapped atomic ions 70 .

Methods

Nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond as qubit sensors

Measurements of time-varying magnetic fields were performed under ambient conditions with a single NV centre in an isotopically purified diamond sample (>99.99% C-12). The NV centre in diamond consists of a substitutional nitrogen adjacent to a vacancy in the diamond lattice. The negatively charged defect exhibits a ground state electronic spin triplet. The zero-field energy splitting between the m s =0 and m s =±1 sublevels is ?=2.87 GHz. A static magnetic field b 0 =2.5 mT directed along the quantization axis of the NV centre lifts the energy degeneracy between the m s =+1 and m s =?1 sublevels via the Zeeman effect. This gives an effective spin qubit m s =0- m s =1 that can be used to measure time-varying magnetic fields. The strength of the interaction with external magnetic fields is given by the gyromagnetic ratio of the electron ? e =2 ? ·28 Hz nT ?1. The NV centre was located in a home-built confocal microscope via fluorescence emission collection and optically initialized to its ground state with a 532 nm laser pulse.

Coherent control of the optical ground-state levels of the NV electronic spin was performed with resonant microwave pulses delivered through an on-chip coplanar waveguide. We set the effective Rabi frequency to 25 MHz to achieve 20 ns ? - pulses and implemented phase cycling to correct for pulse errors. The coplanar waveguide was also used to deliver non-resonant magnetic fields ( t ) generated with an arbitrary waveform generator. The magnetometry method measured the resonance shift produced by the projection of the time-dependent field along the NV axis, b ( t )= ( t ) z .

The qubit was optically read out via spin-state dependent fluorescence measurements in the 600–800 nm spectral window around the 637-nm zero-phonon line with a single-photon counter.

Walsh functions

The set of Walsh functions 17. 25. 26 is a complete, bounded and orthonormal basis of digital functions defined on the unit interval t ?[0,1]. The Walsh basis can be thought of as the digital equivalent of the sine and cosine basis in Fourier analysis. The Walsh functions in the dyadic ordering or Paley ordering are defined as the product of Rademacher functions ( r k ): w 0 =1 and w m = for 1? m ?2 n –1, where m k is the k - th bit of m . The dyadic ordering is particularly useful in the context of data compression 18. The Rademacher functions are periodic square-wave functions that oscillate between ±1 and exhibit 2 k intervals and 2 k –1 jump discontinuities on the unit interval. Formally, the Rademacher function of order k ?1 is defined as r k ( t )? r (2 k ?1 t ), with

extended periodically to the unit interval. The Walsh functions in the sequency ordering are obtained from the grey code ordering of m . Sequency is a straightforward generalization of frequency which indicates the number of zero crossings of a given digital function during a fixed time interval. As such, the sequency m indicates the number of control ? - pulses to be applied at the zero crossings of the m - th Walsh function. The sequency ordering is thus the most intuitive ordering in the context of digital filtering with control sequences.

Additional information

How to cite this article . Cooper, A. et al. Time-resolved magnetic sensing with electronic spins in diamond. Nat. Commun. 5:3141 doi: 10.1038/ncomms4141 (2014).

References

Abstract •

Introduction •

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Acknowledgements

We thank Jonathan Welch and Chinmay Belthangady for helpful discussions and Kurt Broderick for technical support. This work was supported in part by the U. S. Army Research Office through a MURI grant No. W911NF-11-1-0400 and by DARPA (QuASAR program). A. C. acknowledges support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

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Apopril competes with angiotensin I for binding at the angiotensin-converting enzyme, blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. As angiotensin II is a vasoconstrictor and a negative feedback mediator for renin activity, lower angiotensin II levels results in a decrease in blood pressure, an increase in renin activity, and stimulation of baroreceptor reflex mechanisms. Kininase II, an enzyme which degrades the vasodilator bradykinin, is identical to ACE and may also be inhibited.

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Meglitinide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus

Plain language summary

In type 2 diabetes mellitus. impairment of insulin secretion is an important component of the disease. The meglitinide analogues ("meglitinides") are a class of oral antidiabetic agents that increase insulin secretion in the pancreas. The properties of this class of drug suggest that they have the potential to produce a rapid, short?lived insulin output. Two analogues are currently available for clinical use: repaglinide and nateglinide. Altogether 15 studies were included in this review, eight of the studies used repaglinide as the study drug and five used nateglinide. Two compared the two meglitinides to one another. In total, 3781 people participated in the 15 studies which mainly lasted between 10 and 24 weeks (one study had a duration of 52 weeks).

No studies reported the effect of meglitinides on mortality or diabetes related complications. In the eleven studies comparing meglitinides to placebo, both repaglinide and nateglinide resulted in an improved blood sugar control. Weight gain was generally greater in those treated with meglitinides compared with metformin (up to three kg in three months), another oral antidiabetic drug. Here, diarrhoea occurred less frequently and hypoglycaemia occurred more frequently but rarely severely enough as to require assistance.

Meglitinides may offer an alternative oral hypoglycaemic agent of similar potency to metformin. and may be indicated where side effects of metformin are intolerable (in particular persistent diarrhoea ) or where metformin is contraindicated. However, there is no evidence available yet to indicate what effect meglitinides will have on important long?term outcomes, in particular, on mortality. As yet, the experience with meglitinides in terms of side effects is limited. Results from other Cochrane review groups may provide additional information about the potential role of meglitinides in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus .

Abstract

Background: In type 2 diabetes mellitus. impairment of insulin secretion is an important component of the disease. Meglitinide analogues are a class of oral hypoglycaemic agents that increase insulin secretion, in particular, during the early phase of insulin release.

Objectives: The aim of this review was to assess the effects of meglitinide analogues in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus .

Search methods: We searched several databases including The Cochrane Library . MEDLINE and EMBASE. We also contacted manufacturers and searched ongoing trials databases, and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) web sites.

Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled, parallel or cross?over trials comparing at least 10 weeks of treatment with meglitinide analogues to placebo, head?to?head, metformin or in combination with insulin .

Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality.

Main results: Fifteen trials involving 3781 participants were included. No studies reported the effect of meglitinides on mortality or morbidity. In the eleven studies comparing meglitinides to placebo, both repaglinide and nateglinide resulted in a reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin (0.1% to 2.1% reduction in HbA1c for repaglinide; 0.2% to 0.6% for nateglinide). Only two trials compared repaglinide to nateglinide (342 participants), with greater reduction in glycosylated haemoglobin in those receiving repaglinide. Repaglinide (248 participants in three trials) had a similar degree of effect in reducing glycosylated haemoglobin as metformin. Nateglinide had a similar or slightly less marked effect on glycosylated haemoglobin than metformin (one study, 355 participants). Weight gain was generally greater in those treated with meglitinides compared with metformin (up to three kg in three months). Diarrhoea occurred less frequently and hypoglycaemia occurred more frequently but rarely severely enough as to require assistance.

Authors' conclusions: Meglitinides may offer an alternative oral hypoglycaemic agent of similar potency to metformin. and may be indicated where side effects of metformin are intolerable or where metformin is contraindicated. However, there is no evidence available to indicate what effect meglitinides will have on important long?term outcomes, particularly mortality.

Editorial Group: Cochrane Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders Group.

Publication status: Edited (no change to conclusions).

Citation: Black C, Donnelly P, McIntyre L, Royle P, Shepherd JJ, Thomas S. Meglitinide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 2. Art. No. CD004654. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004654.pub2. Link to Cochrane Library. [PubMed. 17443551 ]

Naproxen Indications, Side Effects, Warnings, Naprozen

Naproxen

Generic Name: naproxen (na-PROX-en) Brand Name: Examples include Anaprox and Naprosyn

Naproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It may cause an increased risk of serious and sometimes fatal heart and blood vessel problems (eg, a heart attack, stroke). The risk may be greater if you already have heart problems or if you take naproxen for a long time. Do not use naproxen right before or after bypass heart surgery.

Naproxen may cause an increased risk of serious and sometimes fatal stomach ulcers and bleeding. Elderly patients may be at greater risk. This may occur without warning signs.

Naproxen is used for:

Treating rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and juvenile arthritis. It is also used to treat tendonitis, bursitis, gout, menstrual cramps, or mild to moderate pain. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.

Naproxen is an NSAID. Exactly how it works is not known. It may block certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation. They do not treat the disease that causes those symptoms.

Do NOT use naproxen if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in naproxen

you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, severe rash, hives, trouble breathing, growths in the nose, dizziness) to aspirin or another NSAID (eg, ibuprofen, celecoxib)

you have recently had or will be having bypass heart surgery

if you have severe kidney problems

you are in the last 3 months of pregnancy

you are taking another medicine that contains naproxen

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Before using naproxen:

Some medical conditions may interact with naproxen. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have a history of kidney or liver disease, diabetes, or stomach or bowel problems (eg, bleeding, perforation, ulcers, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease)

if you have a history of swelling or fluid buildup, asthma, growths in the nose (nasal polyps), or mouth inflammation

if you have high blood pressure, blood disorders, bleeding or clotting problems, heart problems (eg, heart failure), or blood vessel disease, or if you are at risk of any of these diseases

if you have poor health; dehydration or low fluid volume; low blood sodium levels; you are on a low-salt (sodium) diet; or you drink alcohol, smoke, or have a history of alcohol abuse

Some MEDICINES MAY INTERACT with naproxen. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), antiplatelet medicines (eg, clopidogrel), aspirin, corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), heparin, other NSAIDs (eg, ibuprofen), rivaroxaban, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (eg, fluoxetine) because the risk of stomach bleeding may be increased

Probenecid because it may increase the risk of naproxen's side effects

Bisphosphonates (eg, alendronate), cyclosporine, hydantoins (eg, phenytoin), lithium, methotrexate, quinolones (eg, ciprofloxacin), sulfonamides (eg, sulfamethoxazole), or sulfonylureas (eg, glipizide) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by naproxen

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril), beta-blockers (eg, propranolol), or diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide) because their effectiveness may be decreased by naproxen

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if naproxen may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

How to use naproxen:

Use naproxen as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.

Naproxen comes with an extra patient information sheet called a Medication Guide. Read it carefully. Read it again each time you get naproxen refilled.

Take naproxen by mouth. It may be taken with food if it upsets your stomach. Taking it with food may not lower the risk of stomach of bowel problems (eg, bleeding, ulcers). Talk with your doctor or pharmacist if you have persistent stomach upset.

Take naproxen with a full glass of water (8 oz [240 mL]) as directed by your doctor.

If you take antacids, cholestyramine, or sucralfate, ask your doctor or pharmacist how to take them with naproxen.

If you miss a dose of naproxen and you are taking it regularly, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use naproxen.

Important safety information:

Naproxen may cause dizziness or drowsiness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use naproxen with caution. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Serious stomach ulcers or bleeding can occur with the use of naproxen. Taking it in high doses or for a long time, smoking, or drinking alcohol increases the risk of these side effects. Taking naproxen with food will NOT reduce the risk of these effects. Contact your doctor or emergency room at once if you develop severe stomach or back pain; black, tarry stools; vomit that looks like blood or coffee grounds; or unusual weight gain or swelling.

Do NOT take more than the recommended dose or use for longer than prescribed without checking with your doctor.

Naproxen has naproxen in it. Before you start any new medicine, check the label to see if it has naproxen or any other NSAID (eg, ibuprofen) in it too. If it does or if you are not sure, check with your doctor or pharmacist.

Do not take aspirin while you are using naproxen unless your doctor tells you to.

Do not switch between different forms of naproxen (eg, tablets, suspension) unless your doctor tells you to. They may not provide the same amount of medicine to your body.

Naproxen may interfere with certain lab tests. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know that you take naproxen.

LAB TESTS, including kidney or liver function tests, complete blood cell counts, and blood pressure, may be performed while you use naproxen. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use naproxen with caution in the ELDERLY; they may be more sensitive to its effects, especially stomach bleeding and kidney problems.

Naproxen should be used with extreme caution in CHILDREN younger than 2 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: Naproxen may harm the fetus. Do not use it during the last 3 months of pregnancy. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using naproxen while you are pregnant. Naproxen should not be used during labor. Naproxen is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use naproxen, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

Possible side effects of naproxen:

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects. Check with your doctor if any of these most COMMON side effects persist or become bothersome:

Constipation; diarrhea; dizziness; drowsiness; gas; heartburn; nausea; stomach upset; vomiting.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these SEVERE side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; trouble breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue; wheezing); bloody or black, tarry stools; change in the amount of urine produced; chest pain; confusion; dark urine; depression; fainting; fast or irregular heartbeat; fever, chills, or persistent sore throat; loss of appetite; mental or mood changes; numbness of an arm or leg; one-sided weakness; pale stools; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin; ringing in the ears or hearing changes; seizures; severe headache or dizziness; severe or persistent stomach pain or nausea; severe vomiting; shortness of breath; sudden or unexplained weight gain; swelling of the hands, legs, or feet; unusual bruising or bleeding; unusual joint or muscle pain; unusual tiredness or weakness; vision or speech changes; vomit that looks like coffee grounds; yellowing of the skin or eyes.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. To report side effects to the appropriate agency, please read the Guide to Reporting Problems to FDA .

If OVERDOSE is suspected:

Contact 1-800-222-1222 (the American Association of Poison Control Centers), your local poison control center. or emergency room immediately. Symptoms may include decreased urination; loss of consciousness; seizures; severe dizziness or drowsiness; severe nausea or stomach pain; slow or troubled breathing; unusual bleeding or bruising; vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

Proper storage of naproxen:

Store naproxen at room temperature, between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep naproxen out of the reach of children and away from pets.

General information:

If you have any questions about naproxen, please talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other health care provider.

Naproxen is to be used only by the patient for whom it is prescribed. Do not share it with other people.

If your symptoms do not improve or if they become worse, check with your doctor.

Check with your pharmacist about how to dispose of unused medicine.

This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take naproxen or any other medicine. Only your health care provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for you. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about naproxen. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to naproxen. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You must talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using naproxen.

Review Date: August 8, 2016

Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only your health care provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for you. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this medicine. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You must talk with your healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine.

More about naproxen

Primodil At, Primodil

Primodil At

Typical use Of Atenolol :

To Control High Blood Pressure, Prevent Chest Pain, Control Heart Rhythm Disorders And Prevention Of Severe Headache (migraine).

Mechanism of action of Atenolol :

Atenolol Blocks Beta Receptors (beta Blockers) In The Heart And Peripheral Blood Vessels Resulting In Slowing Of Heart Rate And Relaxing Of Blood Vessels Thereby Lowering Blood Pressure. Atenolol Reduces Oxygen Requirement At Any Level Of Activity Making It Useful For Long-term Management Of Heart Attacks Caused By Restricted Cardiac Blood Flow.

Drug Interaction of Atenolol :

NSAIDs Such As Ibuprofen, Naproxen And Calcium Channel Blockers (verapamil, Nifedipine And Diltiazem) Taken With Atenolol Can Severely Lower Blood Pressure And Reduce Heart Rate. Atenolol When Administered With Antiarrhythmic Drugs (disopyramide, Amiodarone), Digoxin Can Cause Severe Lowering Of Heart Rate. Use Of Other Hypotensive With Atenolol Can Cause Excess Lowering Of Blood Pressure. Both Digitalis Glycosides And Beta-blockers Slow Atrioventricular Conduction And Decrease Heart Rate. Concomitant Use Can Decrease The Heart Rate (bradycardia). Administration With Insulin Or Other Oral Anti-diabetics Can Impair Sugar Control. Always Consult Your Physician For The Change Of Dose Regimen Or An Alternative Drug Of Choice That May Strictly Be Required.

Side effects of Atenolol :

Narrowing Of Airways, Wheezing, Slowing Of Heart Rate, Low Blood Pressure, Heart Failure, Heart Block, Cold Hands And Feet, Feeling Tired And Weak, Dizziness, Confusion, Drowsiness, Feeling Depressed, Urge To Vomit (nausea), Diarrhea, Constipation, And Inability To Maintain Erection (sexual Dysfunction).

INTERACTIONS OF ATENOLOL

How Atenolol will impact on Pregnancy ?

Buy Cheap Arthritis - Dexasia (Brand Name Decadron) (Dexamethasone) Buy Arthritis - Dexasia (Brand N

Decadron is used to treat conditions such as arthritis, blood/hormone/immune system disorders, allergic reactions, certain skin and eye conditions, breathing problems, certain bowel disorders. Also it is used in the treatment of cancers of the white blood cells (leukemias), and lymph gland cancers (lymphomas).

Availability: In Stock (34 packs)

Product Description Common use Decadron is used to treat conditions such as arthritis, blood/hormone/immune system disorders, allergic reactions, certain skin and eye conditions, breathing problems, certain bowel disorders. Also it is used in the treatment of cancers of the white blood cells (leukemias), and lymph gland cancers (lymphomas). Finally, Decadron is used as replacement therapy in patients whose adrenal glands are unable to produce sufficient amounts of corticosteroids.

Dosage and direction Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor. The initial oral dose is 0.75 to 9 mg daily depending on the disease. The initial dose should be adjusted according to the response to therapy. Take with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. Take this medication by mouth with food or a full glass of water or milk unless your doctor directs you otherwise. If you take this medication once daily, take it in the morning before 9 AM. Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Take it at the same time(s) each day. It is important to continue taking this medication even if you feel well. Follow the dosing schedule carefully, and take this medication exactly as prescribed. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor. Inform your doctor if your condition does not improve or worsens.

Precautions Do not get immunizations, vaccinations, or skin tests unless specifically directed by your doctor. Before taking Decadron, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any allergies, your medical history: active fungal infections, kidney or liver disease, mental/mood conditions, low blood minerals, thyroid disease, stomach/intestinal problems, high blood pressure, heart problems, diabetes, eye diseases, brittle bones, history of blood clots. If you have been taking this medication for a long time, your body may not make enough natural hormones while you are under physical stress. Your dose may need to be adjusted. If you have stopped taking this drug within the past 12 months, you may need to start taking it again if your body is under physical stress. Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist that you are using this medication or have taken it within the last 12 months. If you have a history of ulcers or take large doses of aspirin or other arthritis medication. Limit alcoholic beverages while taking this medication to decrease the risk of stomach/intestinal bleeding. If you have diabetes, this drug may make it harder to control your blood sugar levels. Monitor your blood sugar levels regularly and inform your doctor of the results. During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. This drug may pass into breast milk and could have undesirable effects on a nursing infant. Therefore, breast-feeding is not recommended while using this medication. Avoid contact with people who have recently received oral polio vaccine or flu vaccine inhaled through the nose, chickenpox or measles unless you have previously had these diseases (in childhood). If you are exposed to one of these infections and you have not previously had it, seek immediate medical attention.

Contraindications Do NOT use Decadron if you are allergic to any ingredient in Decadron, you have a systemic fungal infection, you are taking mifepristone. Contact your doctor or health care provider immediately if any of these apply to you.

Possible side effects

Side effects of Decadron depend on the dose, the duration and the frequency of administration. Short courses of dexamethasone usually are well tolerated with few and mild side effects. Long term, high dose dexamethasone usually will produce predictable and potentially serious side effects. Whenever possible, the lowest effective dose of dexamethasone should be used for the shortest possible length of time to minimize side effects. Alternate day dosing also can help reduce side effects. Side effects include fluid retention, weight gain, high blood pressure, loss of potassium, headache, muscle weakness, puffiness, and hair growth on the face, thinning and easy bruising of skin, glaucoma, cataracts, peptic ulceration, worsening of diabetes, irregular menses, growth retardation in children, convulsions, stomach upset, headache, dizziness, menstrual changes, trouble sleeping, increased appetite, or weight gain may occur, depression, euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, personality changes, and even psychotic behavior. A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Drug interactions Drugs such as phenobarbital, ephedrine, phenytoin (Dilantin), and rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane) may increase the breakdown of corticosteroids by the liver. As a result it may be lower blood levels and reduced effects. Therefore, the dose of corticosteroid may need to be increased if treatment with any of these agents is begun.

Missed dose If you are taking this medication daily and on a regular schedule, and you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Overdose Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine.

Storage Decadron should be stored at 68-77 F (20-25 C) and not frozen

Disclaimer We provide only general information about medications which does not cover all directions, possible drug integrations, or precautions. Information on the site cannot be used for self-treatment and self-diagnosis. Any specific instructions for a particular patient should be agreed with your health care adviser or doctor in charge of the case. We disclaim reliability of this information and mistakes it could contain. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other indirect damage as a result of any use of the information on this site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

Levothroid, Levoxyl, Synthroid, Tirosint, Unithroid (Levothyroxine) Drug Side Effects, Interactions

Brand Names: Levothroid, Levoxyl, Synthroid, Tirosint, Unithroid

Generic Name: levothyroxine (Pronunciation: LEE voe thye ROX een)

What is levothyroxine (Levothroid, Levoxyl, Synthroid, Tirosint, Unithroid)?

Levothyroxine is a replacement for a hormone that is normally produced by your thyroid gland to regulate the body's energy and metabolism. Levothyroxine is given when the thyroid does not produce enough of this hormone on its own.

Levothyroxine treats hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone). Levothyroxine is also used to treat or prevent goiter (enlarged thyroid gland), which can be caused by hormone imbalances, radiation treatment, surgery, or cancer.

Levothyroxine should not be used to treat obesity or weight problems.

Levothyroxine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Euthyrox 0.1 mg

round, yellow, imprinted with 100 M

Levothroid 0.025 mg cap

Levothroid 0.025 mg

Levothroid 0.05 mg cap

Levothroid 0.05 mg

Levothroid 0.075 mg cap

Levothroid 0.075 mg

Levothroid 0.088 mg cap

Levothroid 0.088 mg

Levothroid 0.1 mg cap

Levothroid 0.1 mg

Levothroid 0.112 mg cap

Levothroid 0.112 mg

Levothroid 0.125 mg cap

Levothroid 0.125 mg

Levothroid 0.137 mg

Levothroid 0.15 mg cap

Levothroid 0.15 mg

Levothroid 0.175 mg cap

Levothroid 0.175 mg

Levothroid 0.2 mg cap

Levothroid 0.2 mg

Levothroid 0.3 mg cap

Levothroid 0.3 mg

Levothyroxine 0.025 mg-MYL

Levothyroxine 0.05 mg-MYL

Levothyroxine 0.05 mg-URL

Levothyroxine 0.075 mg-MYL

Levothyroxine 0.088 mg-MYL

Levothyroxine 0.1 mg-MYL

Levothyroxine 0.1 mg-SAN

Levothyroxine 0.1 mg-URL

Levothyroxine 0.112 mg-MYL

Levothyroxine 0.112 mg-SAN

Levothyroxine 0.125 mg-MYL

Levothyroxine 0.125 mg-SAN

Levothyroxine 0.125 mg-URL

Levothyroxine 0.15 mg-MYL

Levothyroxine 0.15 mg-SAN

Levothyroxine 0.15 mg-URL

Levothyroxine 0.175 mg-MYL

Levothyroxine 0.2 mg-MYL

Levothyroxine 0.2 mg-URL

Levothyroxine 0.3 mg-MYL

Levothyroxine 137 mcg-MYL

Levoxyl 0.025 mg

Levoxyl 0.05 mg

Levoxyl 0.075 mg

Levoxyl 0.088 mg

Levoxyl 0.15 mg

Levoxyl 0.175 mg

Levoxyl 0.3 mg

Levoxyl 100 mcg

Levoxyl 112 mcg

Levoxyl 125 mcg

Levoxyl 137 mcg

Levoxyl 200 mcg

Synthroid 0.025 mg

Synthroid 0.025 mg-ABB

Synthroid 0.05 mg

Synthroid 0.05 mg-ABB

Synthroid 0.075 mg

Synthroid 0.075 mg-ABB

Synthroid 0.088 mg

Synthroid 0.088 mg-ABB

Synthroid 0.1 mg

Synthroid 0.1 mg-ABB

Synthroid 0.112 mg

Synthroid 0.112 mg-ABB

Synthroid 0.125 mg

Synthroid 0.125 mg-ABB

Synthroid 0.137 mg

Synthroid 0.15 mg

Synthroid 0.15 mg-ABB

Synthroid 0.175 mg

Synthroid 0.175 mg-ABB

Synthroid 0.2 mg

Synthroid 0.2 mg-ABB

Synthroid 0.3 mg-ABB

Unithroid 0.025 mg

Unithroid 0.088 mg

Unithroid 0.1 mg

Unithroid 0.112 mg

Unithroid 0.15 mg

Unithroid 0.175 mg

Unithroid 0.3 mg

What are the possible side effects of levothyroxine (Levothroid, Levoxyl, Synthroid, Tirosint, Unithroid)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction . hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

headache ;

sleep problems (insomnia );

feeling nervous or irritable;

fever. hot flashes. sweating;

pounding heartbeats or fluttering in your chest;

changes in your menstrual periods; or

appetite changes, weight changes.

Less serious side effects may include mild hair loss .

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What is the most important information I should know about levothyroxine (Levothroid, Levoxyl, Synthroid, Tirosint, Unithroid)?

Since thyroid hormone occurs naturally in the body, almost anyone can take levothyroxine. You should not use this medication if you have had a heart attack. a thyroid disorder called thyrotoxicosis, or an adrenal gland problem that is not controlled by treatment.

Before you take levothyroxine, tell your doctor if you have a serious thyroid disorder (thyrotoxicosis), heart disease. coronary artery disease, diabetes. anemia. problems with your pituitary or adrenal glands, a history of blood clots. if you have recently had a heart attack, or if you are having any symptoms of a heart attack (chest pain or heavy feeling, pain spreading to the arm or shoulder, nausea, sweating, general ill feeling).

If you use insulin or take diabetes medicine by mouth, ask your doctor if your dose needs to be changed when you start using levothyroxine.

Different brands of levothyroxine may not work the same. If you get a prescription refill and your new pills look different, talk with your pharmacist or doctor.

It may take several weeks before your body starts to respond to this medication. Do not stop taking the medicine suddenly, even if you feel well.

Many other medicines can be affected by your thyroid hormone levels. Other medicine may also increase or decrease the effects of levothyroxine. Tell your doctor about all medications you use, start using, or stop using during your treatment with levothyroxine. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Keep a list of all your medicines and show it to any healthcare provider who treats you.

Medical Dictionary

Indocid, Indocid

Indocid

indomethacin (indometacin (UK))

Apo-Indomethacin (CA), Flexin, Indameth (CA), Indocid-R (UK), Indomax SR (UK), Indocid (CA), Indocid PDA (UK), Indocin SR, Indolar SR (UK), Indotec (CA), Novo-Methacin (CA), Nu-Indo (CA), Pardelprin (UK), Pro-Indo (CA), Ratio-Indomethacin (CA), Rheumacin (CA), Rhodacine (CA), Rimacid (UK), Sandoz Indomethacin (CA), Slo-Indo (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)

Therapeutic class: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic

Pregnancy risk category B (third trimester: D )

Pregnancy risk category B (third trimester: D )

FDA Box Warning

• Drug may increase risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke (which can be fatal). Risk may increase with duration of use, and may be greater in patients who have cardiovascular disease or risk factors for it.

• Drug is contraindicated for perioperative pain in setting of coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

• Drug increases risk of serious GI adverse events, including bleeding, ulcers, and stomach or intestinal perforation, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during therapy and without warning. Elderly patients are at greater risk.

Action

Unknown. Thought to inhibit cyclo-oxygenase, an enzyme needed for prostaglandin synthesis.

Availability

Capsules: 25 mg, 50 mg

Capsules (sustained-release): 75 mg

Oral suspension: 25 mg/5 ml

⊘ Indications and dosages

➣ Rheumatoid arthritis; osteoarthritis; ankylosing spondylitis

Adults: 25 to 50 mg P. O. two or three times daily, not to exceed 200 mg daily; or one 75-mg sustained-release capsule P. O. once or twice daily

➣ Acute gouty arthritis

Adults: 50 mg P. O. t. i.d. until pain is tolerable; then reduce dosage rapidly and, finally, discontinue drug. Don't give sustained-release form.

➣ Acute bursitis or tendinitis of shoulder

Adults: 75 to 150 mg P. O. daily in three or four divided doses. Discontinue once inflammation is controlled.

Off-label uses

• Bartter's syndrome • Pericarditis

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug, its components, or other NSAIDs • Active GI bleeding • Concurrent diflunisal use

Precautions

Use cautiously in: • severe cardiovascular, renal, or hepatic disease • history of ulcer disease • elderly patients • pregnant or breastfeeding patients • children ages 14 and younger (efficacy not established).

Administration

• Give with food, full glass of water, or antacids to reduce GI upset. • Don't open or crush capsules. • For arthritis, give up to 100 mg of daily dose at bedtime as needed to reduce nighttime pain and morning stiffness. • Don't give sustained-release form to patients with gouty arthritis.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, vertigo, depression, seizures

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain or cramps, dyspepsia, ulcers, GI bleeding

Other: allergic reactions including anaphylaxis

Interactions

Drug-drug. Antihypertensives, diuretics: decreased efficacy of these drugs

Corticosteroids, other NSAIDs: additive adverse GI reactions

Cyclosporine: increased risk of nephrotoxicity

Diflunisal: potentially fatal GI hemorrhage

Lithium, methotrexate, zidovudine: increased risk of toxicity from these drugs

Probenecid: increased risk of indomethacin toxicity

Drug-diagnostic tests. Dexamethasone suppression test: false-negative result

Drug-herbs. Anise, arnica, chamomile, clove, dong quai, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng: increased bleeding risk

Patient monitoring

• Assess for dizziness, drowsiness, headache, fatigue, and exacerbation of depression, epilepsy, or parkinsonism. • Monitor for drug efficacy, indicated by improved joint mobility, pain relief, and decreased inflammation. • Monitor urine output for marked reduction. • Watch for signs and symptoms of GI bleeding and ulcers.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient to take with food, full glass of water, or antacid to reduce GI upset. • Advise patient not to open or crush capsules. • Inform breastfeeding patient that indomethacin enters breast milk and may cause seizures in infant. Advise her to use a different infant feeding method during therapy. • Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration, balance, and alertness. • As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, and herbs mentioned above.

indomethacin

Apo-Indomethacin

Indameth

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity;Known alcohol intolerance (suspension);Cross-sensitivity may exist with other NSAIDs, including aspirin;Active GI bleeding;Ulcer disease;Proctitis or recent history of rectal bleeding;Intraventricular hemorrhage;Thrombocytopenia; Pediatric: ↑ risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and bowel perforation in premature infants with PDA.

Use Cautiously in: Severe cardiovascular, renal, or hepatic disease;History of ulcer disease;Epilepsy;Hypertension; Obstetric: Not recommended during 2nd half of pregnancy (potential for causing premature closure of ductus arteriosus); Lactation: Usually compatible with breast feeding (AAP); Geriatric: ↑ risk of adverse reactions.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

dizziness ( most frequent )

drowsiness ( most frequent )

headache ( most frequent )

psychic disturbances ( most frequent )

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

Cardiovascular

Gastrointestinal

PO:

drug-induced hepatitis (life-threatening)

gi bleeding (life-threatening)

constipation ( most frequent )

dyspepsia ( most frequent )

nausea ( most frequent )

vomiting ( most frequent )

discomfort

necrotizing enterocolitis

Genitourinary

Dermatologic

Fluid and Electrolyte

hyperkalemia IV:

dilutional hyponatremia IV:

hypoglycemia

Hematologic

thrombocytopenia

blood dyscrasias

prolonged bleeding time

Local

Miscellaneous

allergic reactions including anaphylaxis (life-threatening)

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

Concurrent use with aspirin may ↓ effectiveness. Additive adverse GI effects with aspirin . other NSAIDs . corticosteroids . or alcohol. Chronic use of acetaminophen ↑ risk of adverse renal reactions. May ↓ effectiveness of diuretics or antihypertensives. May ↑ hypoglycemia from insulins or oral hypoglycemic agents. May ↑ risk of toxicity from lithium or zidovudine (avoid concurrent use with zidovudine).↑ risk of toxicity from methotrexate . Probenecid ↑ risk of toxicity from indomethacin.↑ risk of bleeding with cefotetan . cefoperazone . valproic acid . thrombolytics . warfarin . and drugs affecting platelet function including clopidogrel . ticlopidine . abciximab . eptifibatide . or tirofiban .↑ risk of adverse hematologic reactions with antineoplastics or radiation therapy .↑ risk of nephrotoxicity with cyclosporine. Concurrent use with potassium-sparing diuretics may result in hyperkalemia. May ↑ levels of digitalis glycosides . methotrexate . lithium . and aminoglycosides when used IV in neonates.↑ bleeding risk with anise, arnica, chamomile, clove, dong quai, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng.

Route/Dosage

Oral (Adults) Antiarthritic— 25–50 mg 2–4 times daily or 75-mg extended-release capsule once or twice daily (not to exceed 200 mg or 150 mg of SR/day). A single bedtime dose of 100 mg may be used. Antigout— 100 mg initially, followed by 50 mg 3 times daily for relief of pain, then ↓ further.

Oral (Children >2 yr) 1–2 mg/kg/day in 2–4 divided doses (not to exceed 4 mg/kg/day or 150–200 mg/day).

Intravenous (Neonates) Treatment —0.2 mg/kg initially, then 2 subsequent doses at 12–24 hr intervals of 0.1 mg/kg if age <48 hr at time of initial dose; 0.2 mg/kg if 2–7 days at initial dose; 0.25 mg/kg if age >7 days at initial dose Prophylaxis —0.1–0.2 mg/kg initially, then 0.1 mg/kg q 12–24 hr for 2 doses.

Availability (generic available)

Capsules: 25 mg, 50 mg

Sustained-release capsules: 75 mg

Oral suspensionfruit mint, pineapple coconut mint flavors: 25 mg/5 mL

Rectal suppository: 50 mg

Powder for injection: 1 mg/vial

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

Patients who have asthma, aspirin-induced allergy, and nasal polyps are at increased risk for developing hypersensitivity reactions. Monitor for rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria.

Arthritis: Assess limitation of movement and pain—note type, location, and intensity before and 1–2 hr after administration.

PDA: Monitor respiratory status, heart rate, BP, echocardiogram, and heart sounds routinely throughout therapy.

Monitor intake and output. Fluid restriction is usually instituted throughout therapy.

Lab Test Considerations: Evaluate BUN, serum creatinine, CBC, serum potassium levels, and liver function tests periodically in patients receiving prolonged therapy.

Serum potassium, BUN, serum creatinine, AST, and ALT tests may show ↑ levels. Blood glucose concentrations may be altered. Hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations, leukocyte and platelet counts, and CCr may be ↓.

Urine glucose and urine protein concentrations may be ↑.

Leukocyte and platelet count may be ↓. Bleeding time may be prolonged for several days after discontinuation.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Acute pain (Indications) Impaired physical mobility (Indications)

Implementation

If prolonged therapy is used, dose should be reduced to the lowest level that controls symptoms.

Oral: Administer after meals, with food, or with antacids to decrease GI irritation. Do not break, crush, or chew sustained-release capsules.

Shake suspension before administration. Do not mix with antacid or any other liquid.

Intravenous Administration

pH: 6.0–7.5.

Diluent: Preservative-free 0.9% NaCl or preservative-free sterile water. Reconstitute with 1 or 2 mL of diluent. Concentration: 0.5–1 mg/mL. Reconstitute immediately before use and discard any unused solution. Do not dilute further or admix. Do not administer via umbilical catheter into vessels near the superior mesenteric artery, as these can cause vasoconstriction and compromise blood flow to the intestines. Do not administer intra-arterially.

Rate: Administer over 20–30 min. Avoid extravasation, as solution is irritating to tissues.

Y-Site Compatibility: furosemide, insulin, nitroprusside, potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate

Y-Site Incompatibility: calcium gluconate, cimetidine, dobutamine, dopamine, gentamicin, levofloxacin, tobramycin, tolazoline

Patient/Family Teaching

Advise patient to take this medication with a full glass of water and to remain in an upright position for 15–30 min after administration.

Instruct patient to take medication exactly as directed. Take missed doses as soon as remembered if not almost time for next dose. Do not double doses.

May cause drowsiness or dizziness. Advise patient to avoid driving or other activities requiring alertness until response to medication is known.

Caution patient to avoid the concurrent use of alcohol, aspirin, other NSAIDs, acetaminophen, or other OTC medications without consulting health care professional.

Caution patient to wear sunscreen and protective clothing to prevent photosensitivity reactions.

Advise patient to inform health care professional of medication regimen before treatment or surgery.

Instruct patient to notify health care professional if rash, itching, chills, fever, muscle aches, visual disturbances, weight gain, edema, abdominal pain, black stools, or persistent headache occurs.

PDA: Explain to parents the purpose of medication and the need for frequent monitoring.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

Decrease in severity of moderate pain.

Improved joint mobility. Partial arthritic relief is usually seen within 2 wk, but maximum effectiveness may require up to 1 mo of continuous therapy. Patients who do not respond to one NSAID may respond to another.

Successful PDA closure.

Indocid

A brand name for INDOMETHACIN (indometacin).

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Budesonal, Budesonal

Budesonide

Click for further information on drug naming conventions and International Nonproprietary Names .

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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Rhinocort is used for the control of asthma in persons requiring continuous, prolonged treatment. Such patients may include those with frequent asthmatic episodes requiring bronchodilators, or those with asthmatic episodes at night.

Use Rhinocort as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.

Hold the device upright while using. If the inhaler device is dropped or shaken, or if you accidentally breathe into the device after the dose has been loaded, you will lose the dose. Load another dose. Do not use the inhaler if it has been damaged or if the mouthpiece has come off. Inhale this medication by mouth, usually once or twice daily or as directed by your doctor. Inhale deeply and forcefully while using the device. Turn your mouth away from the device to breathe out before inhaling.

Keep track of each dose of medication you use. Discard the device after it has delivered the labeled number of doses or when the red mark reaches the bottom of the dose indicator window. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it.

Do not increase your dose or use this drug more often or for longer than prescribed.

Take Rhinocort as directed by your doctor.

Budesonide is used to prevent asthmatic attacks and should not be used to treat an acute attack of asthma. The Turbuhaler is used for individuals six years of age or older. Effects can be seen within 24 hours, but maximum effects may not be seen for 1-2 weeks or longer. Doses vary widely. Adults usually receive 1 to 4 actuations (puffs) twice daily. Children usually receive 1 to 2 puffs twice daily. For those with mild asthma, treatment once daily may be sufficient.

Budesonide should be stored at room temperature, 20-25 C (68-77 F).

Before using budesonide, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients (such as lactose, milk proteins found in some brands), which can cause allergic reactions or other problems.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: eye disease (such as cataracts. glaucoma), high blood pressure, liver disease, thyroid problems, diabetis, stomach/intestinal problems, bone loss (osteoporosis), current/past infections (such as tuberculosis, positive tuberculosis test, herpes, fungal), bleeding problems, mental/mood conditions (such as psychosis, anxiety, depression).

Before having surgery or emergency treatment, or if you get a serious illness/injury, tell your doctor or dentist that you are using this medication or have used a corticosteroid taken by mouth within the past 12 months. Tell your doctor immediately if you develop unusual/extreme tiredness or weight loss.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant before using this medication. Infants born to mothers who have used corticosteroids for a long time may have hormone problems.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: aldesleukin, other drugs that weaken the immune system (such as azathioprine, cyclosporine, cancer, chemotherapy), mifepristone. Other medications can affect the removal of budesonide from your body, which may affect how budesonide works. Examples include azole antifungals (such as ketokonazole), boceprevir, macrolide antibiotics (such as erythromycin, rifamycins (such as rifabutin), St. John's wort, drugs used to treat seizures (such as carbamazepine. phenytoin), among others.

Dry/irritated throat, hoarseness, voice changes, bad taste in the mouth, runny nose, or nosebleeds may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects. Infrequently, this medication may cause severe sudden worsening of breathing problems/asthma immediately after use. If you have sudden worsening of breathing, use your quick-relief inhaler and seek immediate medical attention. Because this drug works by weakening the immune system, it may lower your ability to fight infections. This may make you more likely to get a serious (rarely fatal) infection or make any infection you have worse. Tell your doctor immediately if you have any signs of infection (such as ear pain, sore throat, fever, chills).

Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in yeast infection. Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth or on your tongue.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but serious side effects occur: unusual tiredness, vision problems, easy bruising/bleeding, puffy face, unusual hair growth, mental/mood changes (such as depression, mood swings, agitation), muscle weakness/pain, thinning skin, slow wound healing, increased thirst/urination. A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare.

Seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction: rash/itching, swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

Rhinocort is used for the control of asthma in persons requiring continuous, prolonged treatment. Such patients may include those with frequent asthmatic episodes requiring bronchodilators, or those with asthmatic episodes at night.

Use Rhinocort as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.

Hold the device upright while using. If the inhaler device is dropped or shaken, or if you accidentally breathe into the device after the dose has been loaded, you will lose the dose. Load another dose. Do not use the inhaler if it has been damaged or if the mouthpiece has come off. Inhale this medication by mouth, usually once or twice daily or as directed by your doctor. Inhale deeply and forcefully while using the device. Turn your mouth away from the device to breathe out before inhaling.

Keep track of each dose of medication you use. Discard the device after it has delivered the labeled number of doses or when the red mark reaches the bottom of the dose indicator window. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it.

Do not increase your dose or use this drug more often or for longer than prescribed.

Take Rhinocort as directed by your doctor.

Budesonide is used to prevent asthmatic attacks and should not be used to treat an acute attack of asthma. The Turbuhaler is used for individuals six years of age or older. Effects can be seen within 24 hours, but maximum effects may not be seen for 1-2 weeks or longer. Doses vary widely. Adults usually receive 1 to 4 actuations (puffs) twice daily. Children usually receive 1 to 2 puffs twice daily. For those with mild asthma, treatment once daily may be sufficient.

Budesonide should be stored at room temperature, 20-25 C (68-77 F).

Before using budesonide, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients (such as lactose, milk proteins found in some brands), which can cause allergic reactions or other problems.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: eye disease (such as cataracts. glaucoma), high blood pressure, liver disease, thyroid problems, diabetis, stomach/intestinal problems, bone loss (osteoporosis), current/past infections (such as tuberculosis, positive tuberculosis test, herpes, fungal), bleeding problems, mental/mood conditions (such as psychosis, anxiety, depression).

Before having surgery or emergency treatment, or if you get a serious illness/injury, tell your doctor or dentist that you are using this medication or have used a corticosteroid taken by mouth within the past 12 months. Tell your doctor immediately if you develop unusual/extreme tiredness or weight loss.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant before using this medication. Infants born to mothers who have used corticosteroids for a long time may have hormone problems.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: aldesleukin, other drugs that weaken the immune system (such as azathioprine, cyclosporine, cancer, chemotherapy), mifepristone. Other medications can affect the removal of budesonide from your body, which may affect how budesonide works. Examples include azole antifungals (such as ketokonazole), boceprevir, macrolide antibiotics (such as erythromycin, rifamycins (such as rifabutin), St. John's wort, drugs used to treat seizures (such as carbamazepine. phenytoin), among others.

Dry/irritated throat, hoarseness, voice changes, bad taste in the mouth, runny nose, or nosebleeds may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects. Infrequently, this medication may cause severe sudden worsening of breathing problems/asthma immediately after use. If you have sudden worsening of breathing, use your quick-relief inhaler and seek immediate medical attention. Because this drug works by weakening the immune system, it may lower your ability to fight infections. This may make you more likely to get a serious (rarely fatal) infection or make any infection you have worse. Tell your doctor immediately if you have any signs of infection (such as ear pain, sore throat, fever, chills).

Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in yeast infection. Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth or on your tongue.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but serious side effects occur: unusual tiredness, vision problems, easy bruising/bleeding, puffy face, unusual hair growth, mental/mood changes (such as depression, mood swings, agitation), muscle weakness/pain, thinning skin, slow wound healing, increased thirst/urination. A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare.

Seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction: rash/itching, swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

Maybe Colitis And Gastritis, Gastroflux

maybe colitis and gastritis

Navbar Menu

maybe colitis and gastritis

10-14-2006 03:05 AM by N00b

Please excuse my english:

My mother has been suffering from Diarrhea and a sense of something hard being kept (as if something has been collected ; thats what she says) over her above the navel region.

We took her to a doctor and he gave her immodium(2 tab) for relief from diarrhea and told us to give it to her if Diarrhea persists again i. e only when she passes frequent stools and not to be given for daily use. He also gave her Razo-D Bifilin Loobid.

She took the medicines for 10 days felt some relief from Diarrhea but still she had that hardness feeling in her above the navel region. so we took her to another doctor.

He gave her some medicines but she again had Diarrhea and that feeling of hardness. Now the doctor told us that she was suffering from Colitis and Gastritis. They took some tests

1.) USG (Ultra Sound) 2.) S. Amylase 3.) P. Count 4.) Stool test 5.) Widal (The report has not come yet

All the tests reports (except widal) were normal except S. Amylase which was 62mm and the doctors said it was a little more then what it should be

He gave her a few Injections

1.) Inj PERINORM (Clopra, Maxolon, Metoclopramide, Octamide, Reglan) 2.) Inj Rantac 3.) Inj Monocef ( Ceftriaxone sodium ) 4.) Inj Metronidazole (not sure about this one but i believe it was this name) 5.) Inj Oflox (I believe its ofloxacin but not sure about this one too) 6.) Inj Amikacin 7.) Capsule Picpro 8.) Syrup Gastroflux

This treatment was given to her for two days while she was admitted in the hospital.

Now after two days(Today) the doctors have prescribed 1.) Inj Monocef ( Ceftriaxone sodium ) 2.) Inj Amikacin 3.) Capsule Picpro 4.) Syrup Gastroflux 5.) Rabium - D sr (Rabeperazole Sodium the generic version of Eisai's Aciphex®)

The doctor's have asked her to take only liquid diet but even today as she was being given injections she vomited and even after that she vomited when she came home twice.

Now what i want to ask is that

Is something wrong? Should we take her to some other doctor? also is she really suffering from colitis and gstritis. How much time would it take for her to get completely fit ? Can things get complicated even after she has recovered ? IS this thing Deadly ior can it be cured easily (Pls dont lie) ? Are there any other things she needs to take care of.

One thing i would like to add here is that she is also taking Alprax plus for the past three or four years. I added this incase it was usefull

Pls forgive me if i have broken any rule of the forum or any other mistake that i might have made during this post.

I am really worried about her.

Any help would be appreciated

10-14-2006 08:02 AM by Hamilton92

Re: maybe colitis and gastritis

I've never heard of anyone being admitted to the hospital and given injections for colitis and gastritis. I have mild colitis but my doctor says my case is so mild he doesn't feel that right now medication would really make a difference. I too get that hardness feeling around my belly button area. I bloat up and my whole stomach especially around my bellybutton area feels very raw, and "gritty" feeling inside. What was the doctors reasoning for putting her in the hospital? No it is not deadly. Just very annoying and uncomfortable. Please keep up posted. My prayers are with you.

10-14-2006 06:48 PM by N00b

Re: maybe colitis and gastritis

we went to the doctor yesterday evening and he took us to another doctor. That guy just changed everything. He stopped all the medicines and started new ones. He also said that it was something called nonulcer dyspepsia and it was nothing to worry about he also game my mother a few medicines like Rabeperazole Sodium the generic version of Eisai's Aciphex? Normospas nitazoxanide livosil

each of theese medicines have to be taken after a gap of 15 min after food except for the first one which has to be taken before eating.

Now as soon as my mother took nitazoxanide she said she was feeling dizzy. then vomited. I am gonna talk to the doctor about vomiting and ask if some medicines need to be changed

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Amoxil Active ingredient: Amoxicillin $0.39 for pill Amoxil is an antibiotic from the penicillin group used to treat infections such as pneumonia, gonorrhea caused by E. coli, salmonella, etc. Viagra Professional Active ingredient: Sildenafil $0.57 for pill Viagra Professional is an extra-strength prescription medicine. It starts acting faster and the effect lasts longer that with regular Viagra.

Prednisone Active ingredient: prednisone $0.30 for pill Prednisone is used to reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms in a variety of disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and severe cases of asthma. Brand Cialis Active ingredient: Tadalafil $3.72 for pill Brand Cialis improves erection and helps to achieve a successful sexual intercourse.

Dapoxetine Active ingredient: Dapoxetine $0.95 for pill Dapoxetine is used as a treatment for premature ejaculation. Zithromax Active ingredient: Azithromycin $0.40 for pill Zithromax is a macrolide antibiotic to treat infections of upper and low respiratory tract, especially ear infections, pneumonia.

Nolvadex Active ingredient: tamoxifen $0.52 for pill Nolvadex (Tamoxifen) is used for treating breast cancer in women. Cytotec Active ingredient: Misoprostol $1.70 for pill Cytotec prevents formation of stomach ulcers in patients treated by NSAIDs or arthritis or pain medicines.

Cialis Professional Active ingredient: Tadalafil $1.20 for pill Cialis Professional is essentially a "new and improved" formula of the original Cialis®. While the product has been reformulated and enhanced in its. Viagra Super Active Active ingredient: Sildenafil $1.25 for pill Viagra Super Active is created to deliver maximum effect in the shortest time. It will take you only 10 minutes to feel the result.

Extra Super Viagra Active ingredient: dapoxetine $2.86 for pill Extra Super Viagra is used in the treatment of Erectile Dysfunction with Premature Ejaculation. Extra Super Viagra contains Sildenafil100 mg and Dapoxetine. Cialis Extra Dosage Active ingredient: Tadalafil $2.05 for pill Cialis Extra Dosage is indicated for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Cialis Extra Dosage works faster than other ED drugs and lasts for an extended.

Cialis Soft Active ingredient: Tadalafil $1.11 for pill Cialis Soft improves erection and helps to achieve a successful sexual intercourse. Viagra Soft Active ingredient: Sildenafil $0.91 for pill Viagra Soft is a chewable tablet. Absorbed directly into the bloodstream, it acts faster. It is used to treat erection problems in men. The time necessary.

Kamagra Active ingredient: Sildenafil $0.90 for pill Kamagra is used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cipro Active ingredient: Ciprofloxacin $0.22 for pill Cipro is an antibiotic in a group of drugs called fluoroquinolones. It is used to treat different types of bacterial infections, e. g. bladder inflammation.

Cialis Super Active Active ingredient: Tadalafil $1.32 for pill Cialis Super Active increases testosterone levels, possesses enhanced vasodilating effect, increases sperm production and sexual arousal, stamina, and. Extra Super Cialis Active ingredient: tadalafil $3.06 for pill Extra Super Cialis is used in the treatment of Erectile Dysfunction with Premature Ejaculation. Extra Super Cialis 100mg contains Tadalafil 40 mg and.

Female Viagra Active ingredient: Sildenafil $0.68 for pill Female Viagra improves woman's sexuality, increases sensitivity to stimulation, allows to reach an intense sexual satisfaction. Lasix Active ingredient: Furosemide $0.25 for pill Lasix belongs to a class of diuretics, it is prescribed in patients with swelling caused by congestive heart failure.

Zoloft Active ingredient: Sertraline $0.28 for pill Zoloft is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor to treat depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, certain types of social anxiety. Propranolol Active ingredient: propranolol $0.27 for pill Propranolol works by decreasing the action of pacemaker cells and slowing certain impulses in the heart.

Xenical Active ingredient: Orlistat $0.79 for pill Xenical (Orlistat) is recommended and prescribed by pharmacists as a weight loss medication that targets the absorption of fat in your body rather than. Prednisolone $0.32 for pill Prednisolone is used for treating allergies, arthritis, breathing problems (e. g. asthma), certain blood disorders, collagen diseases (e. g. lupus), certain.

Tadapox Active ingredient: tadalafil $1.08 for pill Tadapox is a new combination tablet containing two of the most potent and effective pharmaceuticals proven to combat the major causes of male sexual. Metformin Active ingredient: metformin $0.26 for pill Metformin is a biguanide anti-diabetic that works by decreasing the amount of sugar that the liver produces and the intestines absorb.

Antabuse Active ingredient: Disulfiram $0.43 for pill Antabuse is used for treating alcoholism. Sildalis Active ingredient: tadalafil $0.95 for pill Sildalis is a combination drug, consisting both of Tadalafil and Sildenafil citrate (Viagra+Cialis). This combined medication is designed for the treatment.

Valtrex Active ingredient: Valacyclovir $2.66 for pill Valtrex is an antiviral drug used to treat herpes zoster, genital herpes, and herpes cold sores on the face and lips.

Viagra Active ingredient: Sildenafil $0.27 for pill Viagra is often the first treatment tried for erectile dysfunction in men and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cialis Active ingredient: Tadalafil $0.68 for pill Cialis improves erection and helps to achieve a successful sexual intercourse.

Clomid Active ingredient: Clomiphene $0.44 for pill Clomid is a fertility drug, used to stimulate FSH and LH production and hereby the ovaries to produce eggs in ovarian disorders. ED Sample Pack 1 $2.31 for pill ED Sample Pack 1 consists of a two well-known medications (Viagra and Cialis) designed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

Brand Viagra Active ingredient: Sildenafil $2.56 for pill Brand Viagra is often the first treatment tried for erectile dysfunction in men and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Doxycycline $0.30 for pill Doxycyline is a tetracycline antibiotic used to treat infections of urinary tract, acne, gonorrhea, chlamydiosis, periodontitis, etc.

Propecia Active ingredient: Finasteride $0.51 for pill Propecia is used to treat hair loss (male pattern). Also it is used to treat prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Levitra Active ingredient: Vardenafil $1.00 for pill Levitra is used to treat sexual function problems such as Impotence or Erectile Dysfunction.

Amoxil Active ingredient: Amoxicillin $0.39 for pill Amoxil is an antibiotic from the penicillin group used to treat infections such as pneumonia, gonorrhea caused by E. coli, salmonella, etc. Viagra Professional Active ingredient: Sildenafil $0.57 for pill Viagra Professional is an extra-strength prescription medicine. It starts acting faster and the effect lasts longer that with regular Viagra.

Prednisone Active ingredient: prednisone $0.30 for pill Prednisone is used to reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms in a variety of disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and severe cases of asthma. Brand Cialis Active ingredient: Tadalafil $3.72 for pill Brand Cialis improves erection and helps to achieve a successful sexual intercourse.

Dapoxetine Active ingredient: Dapoxetine $0.95 for pill Dapoxetine is used as a treatment for premature ejaculation. Zithromax Active ingredient: Azithromycin $0.40 for pill Zithromax is a macrolide antibiotic to treat infections of upper and low respiratory tract, especially ear infections, pneumonia.

Nolvadex Active ingredient: tamoxifen $0.52 for pill Nolvadex (Tamoxifen) is used for treating breast cancer in women. Cytotec Active ingredient: Misoprostol $1.70 for pill Cytotec prevents formation of stomach ulcers in patients treated by NSAIDs or arthritis or pain medicines.

Cialis Professional Active ingredient: Tadalafil $1.20 for pill Cialis Professional is essentially a "new and improved" formula of the original Cialis®. While the product has been reformulated and enhanced in its. Viagra Super Active Active ingredient: Sildenafil $1.25 for pill Viagra Super Active is created to deliver maximum effect in the shortest time. It will take you only 10 minutes to feel the result.

Extra Super Viagra Active ingredient: dapoxetine $2.86 for pill Extra Super Viagra is used in the treatment of Erectile Dysfunction with Premature Ejaculation. Extra Super Viagra contains Sildenafil100 mg and Dapoxetine. Cialis Extra Dosage Active ingredient: Tadalafil $2.05 for pill Cialis Extra Dosage is indicated for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Cialis Extra Dosage works faster than other ED drugs and lasts for an extended.

Cialis Soft Active ingredient: Tadalafil $1.11 for pill Cialis Soft improves erection and helps to achieve a successful sexual intercourse. Viagra Soft Active ingredient: Sildenafil $0.91 for pill Viagra Soft is a chewable tablet. Absorbed directly into the bloodstream, it acts faster. It is used to treat erection problems in men. The time necessary.

Kamagra Active ingredient: Sildenafil $0.90 for pill Kamagra is used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cipro Active ingredient: Ciprofloxacin $0.22 for pill Cipro is an antibiotic in a group of drugs called fluoroquinolones. It is used to treat different types of bacterial infections, e. g. bladder inflammation.

Cialis Super Active Active ingredient: Tadalafil $1.32 for pill Cialis Super Active increases testosterone levels, possesses enhanced vasodilating effect, increases sperm production and sexual arousal, stamina, and. Extra Super Cialis Active ingredient: tadalafil $3.06 for pill Extra Super Cialis is used in the treatment of Erectile Dysfunction with Premature Ejaculation. Extra Super Cialis 100mg contains Tadalafil 40 mg and.

Female Viagra Active ingredient: Sildenafil $0.68 for pill Female Viagra improves woman's sexuality, increases sensitivity to stimulation, allows to reach an intense sexual satisfaction. Lasix Active ingredient: Furosemide $0.25 for pill Lasix belongs to a class of diuretics, it is prescribed in patients with swelling caused by congestive heart failure.

Zoloft Active ingredient: Sertraline $0.28 for pill Zoloft is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor to treat depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, certain types of social anxiety. Propranolol Active ingredient: propranolol $0.27 for pill Propranolol works by decreasing the action of pacemaker cells and slowing certain impulses in the heart.

Xenical Active ingredient: Orlistat $0.79 for pill Xenical (Orlistat) is recommended and prescribed by pharmacists as a weight loss medication that targets the absorption of fat in your body rather than. Prednisolone $0.32 for pill Prednisolone is used for treating allergies, arthritis, breathing problems (e. g. asthma), certain blood disorders, collagen diseases (e. g. lupus), certain.

Tadapox Active ingredient: tadalafil $1.08 for pill Tadapox is a new combination tablet containing two of the most potent and effective pharmaceuticals proven to combat the major causes of male sexual. Metformin Active ingredient: metformin $0.26 for pill Metformin is a biguanide anti-diabetic that works by decreasing the amount of sugar that the liver produces and the intestines absorb.

Antabuse Active ingredient: Disulfiram $0.43 for pill Antabuse is used for treating alcoholism. Sildalis Active ingredient: tadalafil $0.95 for pill Sildalis is a combination drug, consisting both of Tadalafil and Sildenafil citrate (Viagra+Cialis). This combined medication is designed for the treatment.

Valtrex Active ingredient: Valacyclovir $2.66 for pill Valtrex is an antiviral drug used to treat herpes zoster, genital herpes, and herpes cold sores on the face and lips.

Tinidral, Tinidral

Tinidazole is used for treating certain parasitic and bacterial infections. Tinidazole is an antiprotozoal and antibiotic. It works by killing sensitive parasites and bacteria.

Use Tinidazole as directed by your doctor.

Take Tinidazole by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablets, check with your doctor or pharmacist.

If you take cholestyramine, do not take it at the same time you take Tinidazole. Talk with your doctor about how you should take cholestyramine with Tinidazole.

If more than one dose of Tinidazole is required, continue using Tinidazole for the full course of treatment in order to clear up your infection completely, even if you feel better in a few days. Do not miss any dose.

If you miss a dose of Tinidazole, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Tinidazole.

Store Tinidazole at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Tinidazole out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do NOT use Tinidazole if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Tinidazole or to other nitroimidazole medicines (metronidazole)

you have the blood disease porphyria

you are in your first 3 months of pregnancy

you are taking astemizole, busulfan, cisapride, or terfenadine

you have taken disulfiram within the past 2 weeks.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Tinidazole. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have nerve, brain, or blood problems; a yeast infection; or a history of seizures or liver problems

if you are undergoing dialysis.

Some medicines may interact with Tinidazole. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Azole antifungals (eg, ketoconazole) or cimetidine because they may increase the risk of Tinidazole's side effects

Barbiturates (eg, phenobarbital), phenytoin, or rifampin because they may decrease Tinidazole's effectiveness

Anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), astemizole, busulfan, cisapride, cyclosporine, fluorouracil, lithium, macrolide immunosuppressants (eg, tacrolimus), sulfonylureas (eg, glipizide), or terfenadine because their actions and the risk of their side effects may be increased

Disulfiram because side effects, such as mental or mood changes, may occur

Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) because their effectiveness may be decreased by Tinidazole.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Tinidazole may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Tinidazole may cause drowsiness or dizziness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Tinidazole with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Avoid drinking alcohol or taking products that contain alcohol while taking Tinidazole and for 3 days after the last dose.

Tinidazole only works against bacteria and parasites; it does not treat viral infections (eg, the common cold).

Be sure to use Tinidazole for the full course of treatment. If you do not, the medicine may not clear up your infection completely. The bacteria or parasites could also become less sensitive to this or other medicines. This could make the infection harder to treat in the future.

Tinidazole may discolor or darken the urine. This is normal and not a cause for concern.

Hormonal birth control (eg, birth control pills) may not work as well while you are using Tinidazole. To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control (eg, condoms).

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Tinidazole before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Tinidazole may interfere with certain lab tests. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know you are taking Tinidazole.

Lab tests, including blood cell counts, may be performed while you use Tinidazole. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Tinidazole with extreme caution in children younger 3 years; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Tinidazole may cause harm to the fetus. Tinidazole should not be used during the first trimester of pregnancy. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Tinidazole while you are pregnant. Tinidazole is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Tinidazole and for 3 days after you have taken the last dose.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Constipation; diarrhea; dizziness; general body discomfort; headache; loss of appetite; metallic/bitter taste in mouth; nausea; stomach pain; tiredness; vomiting; weakness.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); abnormal skin sensations (prickling, tingling); depression; fever, chills, or persistent sore throat; hoarseness; irregular heartbeat; numbness or loss of feeling in the hands or feet; pounding in the chest; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin; seizures; shortness of breath; unusual bruising or bleeding ; vaginal irritation or discharge.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Tinidazole is used for treating certain parasitic and bacterial infections. Tinidazole is an antiprotozoal and antibiotic. It works by killing sensitive parasites and bacteria.

Use Tinidazole as directed by your doctor.

Take Tinidazole by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablets, check with your doctor or pharmacist.

If you take cholestyramine, do not take it at the same time you take Tinidazole. Talk with your doctor about how you should take cholestyramine with Tinidazole.

If more than one dose of Tinidazole is required, continue using Tinidazole for the full course of treatment in order to clear up your infection completely, even if you feel better in a few days. Do not miss any dose.

If you miss a dose of Tinidazole, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Tinidazole.

Store Tinidazole at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Tinidazole out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do NOT use Tinidazole if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Tinidazole or to other nitroimidazole medicines (metronidazole)

you have the blood disease porphyria

you are in your first 3 months of pregnancy

you are taking astemizole, busulfan, cisapride, or terfenadine

you have taken disulfiram within the past 2 weeks.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Tinidazole. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have nerve, brain, or blood problems; a yeast infection; or a history of seizures or liver problems

if you are undergoing dialysis.

Some medicines may interact with Tinidazole. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Azole antifungals (eg, ketoconazole) or cimetidine because they may increase the risk of Tinidazole's side effects

Barbiturates (eg, phenobarbital), phenytoin, or rifampin because they may decrease Tinidazole's effectiveness

Anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), astemizole, busulfan, cisapride, cyclosporine, fluorouracil, lithium, macrolide immunosuppressants (eg, tacrolimus), sulfonylureas (eg, glipizide), or terfenadine because their actions and the risk of their side effects may be increased

Disulfiram because side effects, such as mental or mood changes, may occur

Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) because their effectiveness may be decreased by Tinidazole.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Tinidazole may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Tinidazole may cause drowsiness or dizziness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Tinidazole with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Avoid drinking alcohol or taking products that contain alcohol while taking Tinidazole and for 3 days after the last dose.

Tinidazole only works against bacteria and parasites; it does not treat viral infections (eg, the common cold).

Be sure to use Tinidazole for the full course of treatment. If you do not, the medicine may not clear up your infection completely. The bacteria or parasites could also become less sensitive to this or other medicines. This could make the infection harder to treat in the future.

Tinidazole may discolor or darken the urine. This is normal and not a cause for concern.

Hormonal birth control (eg, birth control pills) may not work as well while you are using Tinidazole. To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control (eg, condoms).

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Tinidazole before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Tinidazole may interfere with certain lab tests. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know you are taking Tinidazole.

Lab tests, including blood cell counts, may be performed while you use Tinidazole. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Tinidazole with extreme caution in children younger 3 years; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Tinidazole may cause harm to the fetus. Tinidazole should not be used during the first trimester of pregnancy. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Tinidazole while you are pregnant. Tinidazole is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Tinidazole and for 3 days after you have taken the last dose.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Constipation; diarrhea; dizziness; general body discomfort; headache; loss of appetite; metallic/bitter taste in mouth; nausea; stomach pain; tiredness; vomiting; weakness.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); abnormal skin sensations (prickling, tingling); depression; fever, chills, or persistent sore throat; hoarseness; irregular heartbeat; numbness or loss of feeling in the hands or feet; pounding in the chest; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin; seizures; shortness of breath; unusual bruising or bleeding ; vaginal irritation or discharge.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Tinidazole is used for treating certain parasitic and bacterial infections. Tinidazole is an antiprotozoal and antibiotic. It works by killing sensitive parasites and bacteria.

Use Tinidazole as directed by your doctor.

Take Tinidazole by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablets, check with your doctor or pharmacist.

If you take cholestyramine, do not take it at the same time you take Tinidazole. Talk with your doctor about how you should take cholestyramine with Tinidazole.

If more than one dose of Tinidazole is required, continue using Tinidazole for the full course of treatment in order to clear up your infection completely, even if you feel better in a few days. Do not miss any dose.

If you miss a dose of Tinidazole, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Tinidazole.

Store Tinidazole at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Tinidazole out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do NOT use Tinidazole if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Tinidazole or to other nitroimidazole medicines (metronidazole)

you have the blood disease porphyria

you are in your first 3 months of pregnancy

you are taking astemizole, busulfan, cisapride, or terfenadine

you have taken disulfiram within the past 2 weeks.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Tinidazole. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have nerve, brain, or blood problems; a yeast infection; or a history of seizures or liver problems

if you are undergoing dialysis.

Some medicines may interact with Tinidazole. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Azole antifungals (eg, ketoconazole) or cimetidine because they may increase the risk of Tinidazole's side effects

Barbiturates (eg, phenobarbital), phenytoin, or rifampin because they may decrease Tinidazole's effectiveness

Anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), astemizole, busulfan, cisapride, cyclosporine, fluorouracil, lithium, macrolide immunosuppressants (eg, tacrolimus), sulfonylureas (eg, glipizide), or terfenadine because their actions and the risk of their side effects may be increased

Disulfiram because side effects, such as mental or mood changes, may occur

Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) because their effectiveness may be decreased by Tinidazole.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Tinidazole may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Tinidazole may cause drowsiness or dizziness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Tinidazole with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Avoid drinking alcohol or taking products that contain alcohol while taking Tinidazole and for 3 days after the last dose.

Tinidazole only works against bacteria and parasites; it does not treat viral infections (eg, the common cold).

Be sure to use Tinidazole for the full course of treatment. If you do not, the medicine may not clear up your infection completely. The bacteria or parasites could also become less sensitive to this or other medicines. This could make the infection harder to treat in the future.

Tinidazole may discolor or darken the urine. This is normal and not a cause for concern.

Hormonal birth control (eg, birth control pills) may not work as well while you are using Tinidazole. To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control (eg, condoms).

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Tinidazole before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Tinidazole may interfere with certain lab tests. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know you are taking Tinidazole.

Lab tests, including blood cell counts, may be performed while you use Tinidazole. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Tinidazole with extreme caution in children younger 3 years; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Tinidazole may cause harm to the fetus. Tinidazole should not be used during the first trimester of pregnancy. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Tinidazole while you are pregnant. Tinidazole is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Tinidazole and for 3 days after you have taken the last dose.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Constipation; diarrhea; dizziness; general body discomfort; headache; loss of appetite; metallic/bitter taste in mouth; nausea; stomach pain; tiredness; vomiting; weakness.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); abnormal skin sensations (prickling, tingling); depression; fever, chills, or persistent sore throat; hoarseness; irregular heartbeat; numbness or loss of feeling in the hands or feet; pounding in the chest; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin; seizures; shortness of breath; unusual bruising or bleeding ; vaginal irritation or discharge.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Adecur - Terazosin Over The Counter Medication, Adecur

Hytrin is used for treating high blood pressure and treating signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Hytrin is an alpha-blocker. It works by relaxing muscles in the blood vessels, resulting in lowering of blood pressure. In BPH, alpha-blockers work by relaxing muscles around the urethra (tube that drains urine from the bladder), which improves urinary symptoms.

Use Hytrin as directed by your doctor.

Take Hytrin by mouth with or without food.

Hytrin may cause a sudden drop in blood pressure after the first dose. Take your first dose at bedtime. If you get up during the night, sit up slowly, then stand slowly.

If you miss a dose of Hytrin, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once. If more than one dose is missed, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Hytrin.

Store Hytrin at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Hytrin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Terazosin hydrochloride.

Do NOT use Hytrin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Hytrin or to similar medicines (eg, prazosin).

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Hytrin. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have prostate cancer, angina pectoris, heart disease, or kidney or liver problems

if you will be having eye surgery.

Some medicines may interact with Hytrin. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors (eg, sildenafil) or verapamil because severe dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting may occur.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Hytrin may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Hytrin may cause drowsiness, dizziness, blurred vision, or lightheadedness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Hytrin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (eg, sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Hytrin; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.

Hytrin may cause a sudden drop in blood pressure after the first dose. Take your first dose at bedtime. If you get up during the night, sit up slowly, then stand slowly. This will help to reduce your lightheadedness or dizziness. These effects are more likely to occur after the first few doses or if your dose has increased, but can occur at any time while you are taking the medicine. It can also occur if you stop taking the medicine and then restart treatment.

Hytrin may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting; alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Patients who take medicine for high blood pressure often feel tired or run down for a few weeks after starting treatment. Be sure to take your medicine even if you may not feel "normal." Tell your doctor if you develop any new symptoms.

Do NOT take more than the recommended dose without checking with your doctor.

Hytrin may rarely cause a prolonged, painful erection. This could happen even when you are not having sex. If this is not treated right away, it could lead to permanent sexual problems such as impotence. Contact your doctor right away if this happens.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Hytrin before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery (including eye surgery).

Lab tests, including blood pressure, may be performed while you use Hytrin. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Hytrin should not be used in children; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Hytrin while you are pregnant. It is not known if Hytrin is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Hytrin, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

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This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

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Citaz - My Best Friend Forever By Malaika H Kambon, Citaz

Raise money for any cause

CITAZ - My Best Friend Forever

Malaika H Kambon OAKLAND, CA

My name is Malaika H Kambon. I am a person with invisible disabilities, and an elder. To reach me directly, click on the "Help" button at the top of the page, then click on the "Contact the Organizer" tab to find out how to donate privately, off line and/or to let me know about assistance from an organization or philanthropist willing to help with the following campaign! Offline contribution amounts will still be posted to this page!

The beautiful red furred Staffordshire terrier you see here is my service animal, CITAZ (pronounced 'see-tahs,' (like mamasitas, only no mama) and she is in desperate need of your help.

She was hit by an irresponsible bicyclist roughly 2 years ago, while waiting quietly next to me on the sidewalk. He didn't stop, but continued to roll over her, tearing the tendons in her right back leg. She now has no muscle tone and very little muscle mass in that leg, along with hip dysplasia in the same hip.

Additionally she has 4 growths on her, one of which has begun to rupture, the other of which has grown from a dot no bigger than the end of my little finger to its present dime size, next to a growth that is even larger.

The growths, 4 total; are located in 3 places on her body: one under the left side of her jaw, two on her chest, and one the back of her privates.

We have no money and no car. We mostly have to use taxis, which are expensive and sometimes leave us standing outside when they see CITAZ, even though I always give the dispatcher the destination address and tell him/her that I have a service animal that is a large dog. But even if I rush her to emergency, we will be turned away without help because we have no money.

CITAZ came into my life in 2005. She is a stray rescue. She is licensed as my service animal. has not ever destroyed a thing in our home (except the cable remote when she was about a year and a half old - she was bored :)

She has protected me when I've gone into anaphylactic shock and fallen, and when I was on crutches and someone intruded into our yard.

Her vets at Montclair Veterinary Hospital, everyone who knows her at Happy Hound Day and Playcare, where she gets the best round the clock care, and everyone in our community knows her as a dog that is strong, and courageous, and has a sweet disposition.

She is also very energetic (she thinks she's 3 not nearly 12 :) when she isn't in pain and/or not able to walk well.

She is now almost 12, and can barely walk due to her leg and now due to the nasty lump on the back of her, just over her privates that is the size of a half dollar, getting bigger, and bleeding. It is now as hard as a block of cement.

She cannot run, has difficulty negotiating the stairs in our home, and her back legs tremble so much that it is difficult for her to walk.

We need help. She needs 7500.00 in tests, corrective surgery and therapy

for her leg, and 12-1400.00 to have the 4 lumps on her body aspirated and removed.

CITAZ sleeps on my bed or on her little couch or in one of two of her basket beds; lets me brush her teeth every day, and has the complete run of our home.

I am very worried. She has a heart as big as the sun, and many good strong years remaining. She deserves every bit of everything good that I can give her.

Right now what I can give her most is a plea for support.

Carbymal

Carbymal

Indicatie(s)

Epilepsie: partiele aanvallen zoals psychomotorische aanvallen; Jackson-epilepsie. Gegeneraliseerde aanvallen met een tonisch - clonische component (grand mal). Gemengde epilepsievormen. Trigeminusneuralgie, idiopathisch of ten gevolge van multipele sclerose. Idiopathische glossofaryngeale neuralgie. Alcoholabstinentiesyndroom. Centrale diabetes insipidus. Polyurie en polydipsie van neurohormonale oorsprong. Manie bij manisch-depressieve ziekten.

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Anticonvulsieve en psychotrope werking. Licht anticholinerg effect. Het remt de hoogfrequente herhaaldelijk optredende neurale ontladingen en vermindert de uitbreiding van synaptische impulsen. Verder remt het de catecholaminenomzetting en de vrijgifte van glutamaat. Kinetische gegevens: Resorptie: langzaam. F Divitab = 15% lager dan van gewone tablet. Plasma-eiwitbinding: 70-93%. Therapeutische bloedspiegel: 5-10 mg/l. Metabolisering: in de lever tot o. a. actief 10,11-epoxide. Halfwaardetijd = grote variatie (8-72 uur), o. a. als gevolg van auto - inductie; 10-20 uur na langdurige inname.

Suspensie 20 mg/ml; 250 ml. Tablet 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg. Tablet met gereguleerde afgifte ('Retard') 200 mg, 400 mg.

de vitale functies bewaken. Eventueel diazepam of een kortwerkend barbituraat toedienen. Uit waarnemingen bij de mens is gebleken dat carbamazepine teratogeen is. Anderzijds kan staken van de therapie gevaarlijk zijn voor de moeder en het ongeboren kind bij het optreden van epilepsie-aanvallen. Bespreking van de problemen met de patiente is noodzakelijk. Carbamazepine gaat over in de moedermelk. Bij langer durende borstvoeding dient rekening te worden gehouden met de leverenzyminducerende werking van carbamazepine bij de zuigeling. Symptomen: tremor, opwinding, krampen, verandering van de bloeddruk, bewustzijnsvermindering, coma, EEG - en ECG-veranderingen.

Voorzorgsmaatregelen, bijwerkingen en contra-indicaties

Er bestaat kruisovergevoeligheid met tricyclische antidepressiva. Carbamazepinegebruik bij patienten met atypische absences kan de aanvallen verergeren. Bij oudere patienten en bij ernstige ziekten van hart en vaten, lever en nier voorzichtig doseren. Bi

Duizeligheid, sufheid, moeheid, anorexie, droge mond, misselijkheid, diarree, obstipatie, accommodatiestoornissen, diplopie, ataxie. Activering van een latente psychose is mogelijk. Vooral bij ouderen risico van verwarring en opwinding. Relatief frequent leukopenie. Trombocytopenie, agranulocytose en aplastische anemie. Hyponatriemie met verschijnselen van waterintoxicatie. Allergische huidreacties, koorts, fotodermatitis, dermatitis exfoliativa, Stevens-Johnson-syndroom, syndroom van Lyell, haaruitval, lymfklierzwelling, acute porfyrie, trombo-embolie, prikkelgeleidingsstoornissen, hepatitis en proteinurie.

Atrioventriculair block. Acute intermitterende poryfyrie of beenmergdepressie in anamnese.

Interacties

Carbamazepine veroorzaakt inductie van de leverenzymen. Bij gelijktijdige behandeling met cumarinederivaten moet de dosis van het anticoagulans daarom worden aangepast. De betrouwbaarheid van orale anticonceptiva kan negatief worden beinvloed. De werking

Buy Pain Relief - Panaflam (Brand Name Anacin) Online - Order Cheap Aspirin, Caffeine - Purchase Pai

Anacin is a pain reliever intended for the temporary relief of minor aches and pains. Anacin is a combination salicylate and stimulant. It works by blocking several different chemical processes within the body that cause pain, inflammation, and fever. It also reduces the tendency for blood to clot.

Availability: In Stock (17 packs)

Anacin is used for treating pain including, headache, muscle aches, sprains, tooth extraction and toothache, menstrual cramps, arthritis and rheumatism, and pain and fever of the common cold. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.

Use Anacin as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.

Take Anacin by mouth with or without food. If stomach upset occurs, take with food to reduce stomach irritation. Taking it with food may not decrease the risk of stomach or bowel problems (eg, bleeding, ulcers) that may occur while taking Anacin.

Take Anacin with a full glass of water (8 oz/240 mL). Do not lie down for 30 minutes after taking Anacin.

Use Anacin exactly as directed on the package, unless instructed differently by your doctor. If you are taking Anacin without a prescription, follow any warnings and precautions on the label.

If you miss a dose of Anacin and you are taking it regularly, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Anacin.

Store Anacin at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Anacin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Anacin may cause dizziness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Anacin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Avoid large amounts of food or drink that have caffeine (eg, coffee, tea, cocoa, cola, chocolate). This includes any medicines that contain caffeine.

Anacin has aspirin in it. Before you start any new medicine, check the label to see if it has aspirin in it too. If it does or if you are not sure, check with your doctor or pharmacist.

Talk to your doctor before you take Anacin or other pain relievers/fever reducers if you drink more than 3 drinks with alcohol per day. Serious stomach ulcers or bleeding can occur with the use of Anacin. Taking it in high doses or for a long time, smoking, or drinking alcohol increases the risk of these side effects. Taking Anacin with food will NOT reduce the risk of these effects. Contact your doctor or emergency room at once if you develop severe stomach or back pain; black, tarry stools; vomit that looks like blood or coffee grounds; or unusual weight gain or swelling.

Do NOT take more than the recommended dose or use for longer than prescribed without checking with your doctor. Taking more than the recommended dose or taking Anacin regularly may be habit-forming.

Anacin may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. To prevent bleeding, avoid situations in which bruising or injury may occur. Report any unusual bleeding, bruising, blood in stools, or dark, tarry stools to your doctor.

Aspirin has been linked to a serious illness called Reye syndrome. Do not give Anacin to a child or teenager who has the flu, chickenpox, or a viral infection. Contact your doctor with any questions or concerns.

Diabetes patients - Anacin may affect your blood sugar. Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.

If Anacin has a strong vinegar-like smell upon opening, do not use. It means the medicine is breaking down. Throw the bottle away safely and out of the reach of children; contact your pharmacist and replace.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Anacin before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Do not take Anacin for at least 7 days after any surgery unless directed by your health care provider.

Do not take Anacin for more than 10 days for pain or for more than 3 days for fever unless directed to do so by your health care provider.

Different brands of Anacin may have different dosing instructions for CHILDREN. Follow the dosing instructions on the package labeling. If your doctor has given you instructions, follow those. If you are unsure of the dose to give a child, check with your doctor or pharmacist.

Do NOT use Anacin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Anacin

you are a child or teenager with influenza (flu) or chickenpox

you have bleeding problems such as hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, or low blood platelets, or you have active severe bleeding

you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, severe rash, hives, breathing difficulties, dizziness) to aspirin, tartrazine, or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (eg, ibuprofen, naproxen, celecoxib)

you are taking anticoagulants (eg, heparin, warfarin) or methotrexate

Before using Anacin:

Some medical conditions may interact with Anacin. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have alcoholism or if you consume 3 or more alcohol-containing drinks every day

if you have asthma, bleeding or clotting problems, growths in the nose (nasal polyps), kidney or liver problems, stomach or intestinal problems (eg, ulcer, inflammation), heart problems, heartburn, upset stomach, stomach pain, hives, influenza (flu) or chickenpox, or vitamin K deficiency

if you have anxiety, trouble sleeping, or heart problems

if you are a child with a stroke, a weakened blood vessel (cerebral aneurysm) or bleeding in the brain, rheumatic disease (eg, rheumatoid arthritis), or Kawasaki syndrome (a rare inflammation causing heart problems in children)

Some MEDICINES MAY INTERACT with Anacin. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines.

PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Anacin while you are pregnant. Anacin is not recommended during the last 3 months (third trimester) of pregnancy because it may cause harm to the fetus. Anacin is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Anacin, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects. Anacin's side effects may include dizziness, heartburn, irritability, nausea, nervousness, rashes, hives, bloody stools, drowsiness, hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and trouble sleeping.

Check with your doctor if any of the listed above most COMMON side effects persist or become bothersome.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these SEVERE side effects occur: severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); black or bloody stools; confusion; diarrhea; drowsiness; hearing loss; ringing in the ears; severe or persistent dizziness; severe or persistent stomach pain or heartburn; shakiness; trouble sleeping; vomiting.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

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Tupast, Ranitidine, Tupast

Tupast

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Treatment and maintenance therapy of duodenal ulcer; management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD; including erosive or ulcerative disease); short-term treatment of benign gastric ulcer; treatment of pathologic hypersecretory conditions (Zollinger-Ellison); maintenance therapy for gastric ulcer patients at reduced dosage after healing of acute ulcers; treatment of endoscopically diagnosed erosive esophagitis; maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis. OTC Treatment and prevention of heartburn.

contraindicated for patients known to have hypersensitivity to the drug or any of the ingredients

Cardiovascular AV block; bradycardia; cardiac arrhythmias; premature ventricular beats. CNS Agitation; confusion; depression; dizziness; fatigue; hallucinations; headache; insomnia; malaise; motor disturbances; somnolence; vertigo. Dermatologic Alopecia; erythema multiforme; rash; vasculitis. EENT Blurred vision. GI Abdominal discomfort; constipation; diarrhea; nausea; pancreatitis; vomiting. Hematologic Acquired immune hemolytic anemia; agranulocytosis; autoimmune hemolytic or aplastic anemia; granulocytopenia; leukopenia; pancytopenia; thrombocytopenia. Hepatic Cholestatic or hepatocellular effects. Musculoskeletal Arthralgias; myalgias. Miscellaneous Anaphylaxis; angioneurotic edema; hypersensitivity reactions.

Diazepam, midazolam, triazolam Pharmacologic effects may be increased or decreased because of decreased GI absorption by ranitidine. Staggering administration times may avoid this reaction. Ethanol May increase plasma ethanol levels. Glipizide Possible increased hypoglycemia effect. Ketoconazole May decrease effects of ketoconazole. Lidocaine May cause increased lidocaine levels. Warfarin Ranitidine may interfere with warfarin Cl. Hypoprothrombinemic effects may increase; may need adjustment.

Pregnancy Category B. Lactation Excreted in breast milk. Children Safety and efficacy of ranitidine have been established in children 1 mo to 16 yr of age for the treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcers, GERD and erosive esophagitis, and the maintenance of healed duodenal and gastric ulcer. Safety and efficacy have not been established for the treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions or the maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis in children or in neonates less than 1 mo of age. Elderly May have reduced renal function; therefore, decreased drug Cl may be more common. Hypersensitivity Rare cases of anaphylaxis have occurred as well as rare episodes of hypersensitivity. Renal Function Decreased Cl may occur; dosage reduction may be needed. Hemodialysis reduces level of ranitidine-dosage; timing must be adjusted so that scheduled dose coincides with end of hemodialysis. Hepatic Function Use drug with caution; decreased Cl may occur. Hepatocellular injury May occur, manifested as reversible hepatitis, hepatocellular or hepatocanalicular or mixed, with or without jaundice. Rapid IV administration May rarely result in bradycardia, tachycardia, or premature ventricular beats, usually in patients predisposed to cardiac rhythm disturbances.

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Voreen

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About Voreen

Voreen is an open source rapid application development framework for the interactive visualization and analysis of multi-modal volumetric data sets. It provides GPU-based volume rendering and data analysis techniques and offers high flexibility when developing new analysis workflows in collaboration with domain experts. The Voreen framework consists of a multi-platform C++ library, which can be easily integrated into existing applications, and a Qt-based stand-alone application. It is licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License. The Voreen project has been initiated and is maintained by the Visualization & Computer Graphics Research Group at the University of Munster as part of the collaborative research center SFB 656 MoBil (Project Z1. Project O ).

Please note: This is the official website of the Voreen project, not voreen. org (for more information about the two websites, please refer to the section about Voreen 3.0 & 4.0 ).

Website Update - 06/24/2015

The documentation has been updated. The concepts, user interface, network editor and some of the basic programming tutorials have been added. Additionally, some known bugs in Voreen 4.4 have been addressed in the downloads section.

Website Update and Future Plans - 12/22/2014

A new image gallery and an updated publications list are now online. At the moment we are working on updating the documentation, which should at least partially be online soon.

For 2015 we plan to release Voreen 4.5, which (among other things) will feature a more accessible animation editor. Moreover, we will continue to work on the website and documentation and will try to set up a new forum.

New Website - 12/12/2014

After a critical security issue in the Drupal content management system we had to take our old website down. Due to several circumstances it took us longer than expected to create a new website and carry over the content from our old website. Although this process is not completed yet, we are working on getting everything back online step by step.

Repaglinide Indications, Side Effects, Warnings, Repaglinida

Repaglinide

Repaglinide is used for:

Treating type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes in patients who cannot control blood sugar levels by diet and exercise alone. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.

Repaglinide is a meglitinide antidiabetic. It works to lower blood glucose (sugar) by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas gland. Repaglinide does not work in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes, because in this condition the pancreas gland is not capable of making or releasing insulin.

Do NOT use repaglinide if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in repaglinide

you have type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes)

you have certain severe problems associated with diabetes (eg, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma)

you are taking gemfibrozil or NPH insulin

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Before using repaglinide:

Some medical conditions may interact with repaglinide. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have adrenal, pituitary, liver, or kidney problems, or if you have a history of high blood acid levels (acidosis)

if you drink alcohol, have very poor health, have a high fever, have a severe infection or injury, or have had poor nutrition

if you will be having surgery

Some MEDICINES MAY INTERACT with repaglinide. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

NPH insulin because the risk of certain heart problems (eg, myocardial ischemia, chest pain) may be increased

Anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), beta-blockers (eg, propranolol), chloramphenicol, cyclosporine, deferasirox, gemfibrozil, imidazoles (eg, itraconazole, ketoconazole), macrolides (eg, clarithromycin, erythromycin), mifepristone, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (eg, phenelzine), montelukast, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen), probenecid, salicylates (eg, aspirin), sulfonamides (eg, sulfamethoxazole), telithromycin, or trimethoprim because the risk of side effects, such as low blood sugar, may be increased

Calcium channel blockers (eg, nifedipine), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogen, hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pills), isoniazid, nicotinic acid, phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), phenytoin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), or thyroid hormones (eg, levothyroxine) because the risk of high blood sugar may be increased

Insulin because it may increase the risk of repaglinide's side effects

Barbiturates (eg, phenobarbital), carbamazepine, or rifamycins (eg, rifampin) because they may decrease repaglinide's effectiveness

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if repaglinide may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

How to use repaglinide:

Use repaglinide as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.

Take repaglinide by mouth at least 15 to 30 minutes before each meal. If you skip a meal, do not take the dose for the skipped meal. If you add an extra meal, take an extra dose with that meal.

If you miss a dose of repaglinide, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use repaglinide.

Important safety information:

Dizziness may occur while you are taking repaglinide. This effect may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use repaglinide with caution. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Do not drink large amounts of alcohol while you use repaglinide. Talk to your doctor or health care provider before you drink alcohol while you use repaglinide.

Follow the diet and exercise program given to you by your health care provider.

Carry an ID card at all times that says you have diabetes. Check your blood sugar levels as directed by your doctor. If they are often higher than they should be and you take repaglinide exactly as prescribed, tell your doctor.

Repaglinide may lower your blood sugar levels. Low blood sugar may be more likely to occur if you skip a meal, exercise heavily, or drink alcohol. Low blood sugar may make you anxious, sweaty, weak, dizzy, drowsy, or faint. It may also make your heart beat faster; make your vision change; give you a headache, chills, or tremors; or make you hungrier. It is a good idea to carry a reliable source of glucose (eg, tablets or gel) to treat low blood sugar. If this is not available, you should eat or drink a quick source of sugar like table sugar, honey, candy, orange juice, or non-diet soda. This will raise your blood sugar level quickly. Tell your doctor right away if this happens. To prevent low blood sugar, eat meals at the same time each day and do not skip meals.

It may be harder to control your blood sugar during times of stress such as fever, infection, injury, or surgery. Talk with your doctor about how to control your blood sugar if any of these occur. Do not change the dose of your medicine without checking with your doctor.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take repaglinide before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Lab tests, including fasting blood sugar and hemoglobin A 1c levels, may be performed while you take repaglinide. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use repaglinide with caution in the ELDERLY; they may be more sensitive to its effects. Low blood sugar levels may also be more difficult to recognize in elderly patients.

Repaglinide should be used with extreme caution in CHILDREN; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed.

PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of taking repaglinide while you are pregnant. It is not known if this medicine is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while you are taking repaglinide.

Possible side effects of repaglinide:

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects. Check with your doctor if any of these most COMMON side effects persist or become bothersome:

Diarrhea; headache; joint or back pain; sinus pain or pressure; symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (eg, cough, mild sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, sneezing).

Seek medical attention right away if any of these SEVERE side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); chest pain; fever, chills, or persistent sore throat; low blood sugar symptoms (eg, anxiety; fainting; fast heartbeat; increased hunger; light-headedness; severe or persistent dizziness, drowsiness, or headache; tremors; unusual sweating; weakness; vision changes); unusual bruising or bleeding.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. To report side effects to the appropriate agency, please read the Guide to Reporting Problems to FDA .

If OVERDOSE is suspected:

Contact 1-800-222-1222 (the American Association of Poison Control Centers), your local poison control center. or emergency room immediately. Symptoms may include seizures; symptoms of low blood sugar (eg, increased hunger or sweating, fast heartbeat, anxiety, dizziness or headache, tremors, chills, vision changes).

Proper storage of repaglinide:

Store repaglinide below 77 degrees F (25 degrees C) in a tightly closed container. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep repaglinide out of the reach of children and away from pets.

General information:

If you have any questions about repaglinide, please talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other health care provider.

Repaglinide is to be used only by the patient for whom it is prescribed. Do not share it with other people.

If your symptoms do not improve or if they become worse, check with your doctor.

Check with your pharmacist about how to dispose of unused medicine.

This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take repaglinide or any other medicine. Only your health care provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for you. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about repaglinide. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to repaglinide. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You must talk with your healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using repaglinide.

Review Date: August 8, 2016

Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only your health care provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for you. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this medicine. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You must talk with your healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine.

More about repaglinide

Volantino Di Farmaci Metfonorm 60cpr Riv 1000mg, Metfonorm

Principio attivo METFORMINA CLORIDRATO Gruppo terapeutico IPOGLICEMIZZANTI, ESCLUSE LE INSULINE Tipo prodotto FARMACO ETICO Regime S. S.N. CONCEDIB. ESENTE Classe A Tipo Ricetta RR - RIPETIBILE Forma Farm. COMPRESSE RIVESTITE Contenitore BLISTER Validit 36 MESI Data Commerc. 11/05/2005 Prezzo A. T.C. A10BA02 Produttore ABIOGEN PHARMA SpA

CATEGORIA FARMACOTERAPEUTICA Ipoglicemizzanti orali.

PRINCIPI ATTIVI Metformina cloridrato 500-850-1000 mg corrispondente a 390-662,9-780 m g di metformina base.

ECCIPIENTI Ipromellosa, povidone, magnesio stearato. Rivestimento: ipromellosa, m acrogol 6000, titanio diossido (E 171).

INDICAZIONI Trattamento del diabete mellito di tipo 2, in particolare nei pazienti in sovrappeso, quando il regime alimentare e l'esercizio fisico da so li non bastano ad un controllo adeguato della glicemia. Negli adulti, nei dosaggi da 500 mg, 850 mg e 1000 mg puo' essere usato in monoterap ia o in combinazione con altri farmaci antidiabetici orali o con l'ins ulina. Nei bambini di eta' superiore ai 10 anni e negli adolescenti, n ei dosaggi da 500 mg, 850 mg e 1000 mg puo' essere usato in monoterapi a o in combinazione con l'insulina. E' stata dimostrata una riduzione delle complicanze del diabete nei pazienti adulti in sovrappeso affett i da diabete di tipo 2 trattati con metformina come terapia di prima l inea dopo il fallimento del regime alimentare.

CONTROINDICAZIONI/EFF. SECONDAR Ipersensibilita' a metformina cloridrato o ad uno qualsiasi degli ecci pienti. Chetoacidosi diabetica, pre-coma diabetico. Insufficienza rena le o disfunzione renale (clearance della creatinina 1/10), comune (>= 1/100, =1/1.00 0, = 1/10.000,

Nessun commento:

Principio attivo METFORMINA CLORIDRATO Gruppo terapeutico IPOGLICEMIZZANTI, ESCLUSE LE INSULINE Tipo prodotto FARMACO ETICO Regime S. S.N. CONCEDIB. ESENTE Classe A Tipo Ricetta RR - RIPETIBILE Forma Farm. COMPRESSE RIVESTITE Contenitore BLISTER Validit 36 MESI Data Commerc. 11/05/2005 Prezzo A. T.C. A10BA02 Produttore ABIOGEN PHARMA SpA

CATEGORIA FARMACOTERAPEUTICA Ipoglicemizzanti orali.

PRINCIPI ATTIVI Metformina cloridrato 500-850-1000 mg corrispondente a 390-662,9-780 m g di metformina base.

ECCIPIENTI Ipromellosa, povidone, magnesio stearato. Rivestimento: ipromellosa, m acrogol 6000, titanio diossido (E 171).

INDICAZIONI Trattamento del diabete mellito di tipo 2, in particolare nei pazienti in sovrappeso, quando il regime alimentare e l'esercizio fisico da so li non bastano ad un controllo adeguato della glicemia. Negli adulti, nei dosaggi da 500 mg, 850 mg e 1000 mg puo' essere usato in monoterap ia o in combinazione con altri farmaci antidiabetici orali o con l'ins ulina. Nei bambini di eta' superiore ai 10 anni e negli adolescenti, n ei dosaggi da 500 mg, 850 mg e 1000 mg puo' essere usato in monoterapi a o in combinazione con l'insulina. E' stata dimostrata una riduzione delle complicanze del diabete nei pazienti adulti in sovrappeso affett i da diabete di tipo 2 trattati con metformina come terapia di prima l inea dopo il fallimento del regime alimentare.

CONTROINDICAZIONI/EFF. SECONDAR Ipersensibilita' a metformina cloridrato o ad uno qualsiasi degli ecci pienti. Chetoacidosi diabetica, pre-coma diabetico. Insufficienza rena le o disfunzione renale (clearance della creatinina 1/10), comune (>= 1/100, =1/1.00 0, = 1/10.000,

Nessun commento:

Glociten Caps, Glociten

GLOCITEN caps

Ho?t ch?t . Glucosamin sulfat 375 mg

Chondroitin sulfat natri 125 mg

GLOCITEN caps du?c dùng gi?m dau, kháng viêm, tái t?o s?n kh?p trong di?u tr? viêm kh?p, viêm xuong kh?p, thoái hóa kh?p, viêm kh?p d?ng th?p, th?p kh?p c?p và m?n tính.

LI?U LU?NG VÀ CÁCH DÙNG

Ngu?i l?n: 2-4 viên m?i ngày, u?ng 1 l?n ho?c chia làm 2 l?n.

Nu?t nguyên viên thu?c v?i nu?c.

Nên u?ng thu?c trong b?a an.

Ngu?i m?n c?m v?i các thành ph?n c?a thu?c.

Ngu?i có ti?n s? d? ?ng v?i d? bi?n.

Ph? n? có thai ho?c dang cho con bú.

LUU Ý VÀ TH?N TR?NG

S? d?ng th?n tr?ng trong nh?ng tru?ng h?p sau:

- Nh?ng ngu?i m?c b?nh ti?u du?ng ho?c gi?m glucose huy?t.

- Nh?ng b?nh nhân b? r?i lo?n ch?y máu ho?c dang dùng các thu?c làm tang nguy co ch?y máu. Trong tru?ng h?p này có th? di?u ch?nh li?u n?u c?n thi?t.

S? d?ng cho ph? n? có thai và cho con bú . Do thi?u b?ng ch?ng khoa h?c, thu?c này không du?c khuyên dùng cho ph? n? có thai và cho con bú.

S? d?ng cho tr? em . Không có d? b?ng ch?ng khoa h?c v? s? d?ng thu?c này cho tr? em, do v?y ch? nên dùng thu?c này khi th?t c?n thi?t và nên tham kh?o ý ki?n bác si.

TUONG TÁC THU?C

V? lý thuy?t, glucosamin có th? làm gi?m tác d?ng c?a insulin hay các thu?c ki?m soát n?ng d? du?ng trong máu khác.

Dùng chung glucosamin v?i các thu?c l?i ti?u nhu furosemid có th? làm tang tác d?ng ph? c?a glucosamin.

Glucosamin có th? làm tang nguy co ch?y máu khi s? d?ng chung v?i các thu?c gây tang nguy co ch?y máu nhu acid acetylsalicylic, thu?c ch?ng dông nhu warfarin hay heparin, thu?c ch?ng k?t t?p ti?u c?u nhu clopidogrel và các thu?c kháng viêm không steroid nhu ibuprofen hay naproxen.

TÁC D?NG KHÔNG MONG MU?N

Tác d?ng ph? g?m khó ch?u ? b?ng, bu?n ng?, m?t ng?, dau d?u, ph?n ?ng ? da và nh?y c?m v?i ánh n?ng.

Hi?m khi dau b?ng, an không ngon, nôn, bu?n nôn, d?y hoi, táo bón, ? nóng và tiêu ch?y.

Ngung s? d?ng và h?i ý ki?n bác si n?u . Ch?y máu b?t thu?ng, nôn ho?c tiêu ch?y kéo dài.

Thông báo cho bác si nh?ng tác d?ng không mong mu?n g?p ph?i khi dùng thu?c.

Glucosamin là m?t thành ph?n t? nhiên du?c tìm th?y trong chitin, mucoprotein và các mucopolysaccharid. Glucosamin có liên quan d?n s?n xu?t glycosaminoglycan, là ch?t t?o nên mô s?n trong co th?; glucosamin còn có ? trong các gân và dây ch?ng. Glucosamin dùng du?ng u?ng có th? giúp tái t?o s?n và thu?ng du?c dùng trong di?u tr? viêm xuong kh?p.

Chondroitin sulfat là m?t acid mucopolysaccharid, thành ph?n c?u t?o trong h?u h?t các mô s?n. Chondroitin du?c dùng du?ng u?ng du?i d?ng mu?i natri và chondroitin sulfat natri trong di?u tr? viêm kh?p. Dôi khi ph?i h?p v?i glucosamin nh?m b?o v? mô s?n trong các r?i lo?n xuong, kh?p và mô liên k?t.

Tri?u ch?ng . Chua có thông tin v? quá li?u.

X? trí . Trong tru?ng h?p quá li?u, ph?i báo ngay cho bác si. B?nh nhân nên du?c theo dõi k? và di?u tr? tri?u ch?ng.

H?p 10 v?, v? 10 viên nang.

H?p 1 chai, chai 100 viên nang.

B?O QU?N : d? noi khô ráo, tránh ánh sáng, nhi?t d? không quá 30 o C.

TIÊU CHU?N CH?T LU?NG: TCCS.

H?N DÙNG : 30 tháng k? t? ngày s?n xu?t.

Terbosulfa, Terbosulfa

Bactrim consists of two medications: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The first inhibits synthesis of dihydrofolic acid (the substance important for human and bacterial metabolism) while the last blocks next stage of its biochemical cycle: formation of tetrahydrofolic acid which occurs only in microorganisms. This medication is effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, bacillus dysentery, typhoid fever, E. coli, Proteus, and ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spirochetes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactrim is applied in treatment of pneumonia and other diseases of respiratory, gastrointestinal systems, urogenital systems caused by bacterial infections which develop after surgery and others.

Dosage and directions

Bactrim can be taken two or three times a day with or without a meal. Dosage depends on the type and severity of infection. Take with a glass of water. Patients with severe kidney failure require correction of Bactrim dosage.

Precautions Avoid exposure to sunlight or getting tanned. Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, inform your doctor if you have it, it can mask other infection. Warn your doctor if you suffer from asthma or have severe kidney or liver disorders.

Contraindications Do not take Bactim if you are allergic to components of the medication, if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, have anemia caused by folic acid deficiency. This medication should not be administered to premature babies and newborns.

Possible side effect

If you have such signs of allergic reaction as hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat or more serious signs of poor health as fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding, diarrhea that is watery or bloody, hallucinations, slow heart rate, weak pulse, nausea, stomach pain, urinating less than usual or not at all then seek for immediate medical attention.

Drug interaction Bactim should be co-administered with dofetilide or methenamine. Bactrim is able to change effects of certain anti-diabetic medications, "blood thinners", cyclosporine, digoxin, drugs which can increase potassium levels, live vaccines, tricyclic antidepressants, some "water pills". So inform your doctor about all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products you may use.

Missed dose Never take a double dose of this medication. If it is almost time of the next dose just skip the missed portion and continue to take the medicine according to the schedule.

Overdose If you took too much of Bactim you may feel dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, headache, yellowing of your skin or eyes, blood in your urine, fainting. In case of serious side effects seek for immediate medical help.

Storage Store at room temperature between 59-77 degrees F (15-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture, kids and pets.

Disclaimer We provide only general information about medications which does not cover all directions, possible drug integrations, or precautions. Information on the site cannot be used for self-treatment and self-diagnosis. Any specific instructions for a particular patient should be agreed with your health care advisor or doctor in charge of the case. We disclaim reliability of this information and mistakes it could contain. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other indirect damage as a result of any use of the information on this site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

Dolorub Marathon - Print Ad By Ddb Santiago, Dolorub

Credits & Description

Category: OTC Pharmacy Advertiser: LABORATORIOS MAVER Product/Service: DOLORUB SPORT Agency: DDB CHILE Chief Creative Officer: Simon Subercaseaux/Matias Lecaros Executive Creative Director: Simon Subercaseaux/Matias Lecaros Creative Director: Eddy Fernandez/Matias Lecaros Copywriter: Eddy Fernandez/Matias Lecaros/Felipe Hernandez/Felipe Araya Art Director: Tomas Garin/Matias Lecaros Photographer: David Calderon Account Supervisor: Carola Velasco Planner: Roberto Bonilla Planner: Roberto Bonilla

English Translation of Main Headlines FOR SPORTS HUNGOVER

The Print Ad titled MARATHON was done by DDB Santiago advertising agency for product: Dolorub (brand: Laboratorios Maver) in Chile. It was released in Sep 2011.

Latest Laboratorios Maver Ads

MARATHON

Laboratorios Maver DDB Santiago September 2011

WRESTLER

Laboratorios Maver DDB Santiago September 2011

BASKETBALL

Laboratorios Maver DDB Santiago September 2011

Prolong: More Time for your fantiasies

Laboratorios Maver DDB Santiago April 2011

KITCHEN

Laboratorios Maver DDB Santiago December 2010

GARAGE

Laboratorios Maver DDB Santiago December 2010

Latest DDB Santiago Works

Astronaut

Play-doh DDB Santiago Salamagica January 2016

Dragon

Play-doh DDB Santiago Salamagica January 2016

ASTRONAUT

Unicef (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund) DDB Santiago March 2013

DRAGON

Unicef (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund) DDB Santiago March 2013

THIS OR THAT

Universidad Diego Portales DDB Santiago March 2013

THIS OR THAT

Universidad Diego Portales DDB Santiago March 2013

Blackrock Muniyield Pa Quality Beta (Mpa), Mpa-Beta

BlackRock MuniYield PA Quality Beta

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About Beta 60 Month

YCharts calculates the 60 month market beta by regressing stock returns less the risk free rate of returns on the market returns less the risk free rate of return (Market returns come from the S&P 500 Total Returns Index (SPXTR), and the risk free rate is the 4 Week Average T-Bill (Monthly). There must be a minimum of 36 months of stock returns for a company to have its beta calculated.

Beta is a measure of the risk of a stock when it is included in a well-diversified portfolio.

In financial theory, the Capital Asset Pricing Model breaks down expected stock returns into two components. The first is the return that would be expected based on covariance with the movements of the market (for most stocks, when the market as a whole goes up, the price of the stock will also go up). The second part is the increase in the price of a stock that is not explained by the market. The first part - covariance with the market - is what Beta captures.

When Beta is positive, the stock price tends to move in the same direction as the market, and the magnitude of Beta tells by how much. If a stock's Beta is greater than 1, that means that when the market index goes up 1%, we expect the stock will go up by more than 1%. On the contrary, if the market goes down by 1%, we expect the stock to go down by more than 1%. Negative Betas, while rare, signify a negative correlation. When the market goes up, we would expect the stock price to go down.

For readers with a background in regression analysis, Beta is the slope of the linear regression shown in the formula below, where Returns are the return on an individual stock or portfolio, R f is the risk free rate, R Market is the return on a market portfolio, and e is an error term. Learn More

View Beta for MPA

Access over 100 stock metrics like Beta, EV/EBITDA, PE10, Free Cash Flow Yield, KZ Index and Cash Conversion Cycle. Start your free 7-Day Trial.

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